Chemerin activates fibroblast-like synoviocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Department of Medicine and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519, Japan.
Arthritis research & therapy (Impact Factor: 3.75). 09/2011; 13(5):R158. DOI: 10.1186/ar3475
Source: PubMed


Chemerin is a chemotactic agonist identified as a ligand for ChemR23 that is expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we analyzed the expression of chemerin and ChemR23 in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and the stimulatory effects of chemerin on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA patients.
Chemerin and ChemR23 expression in the RA synovium was ascertained by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Chemerin expression on cultured FLSs was analyzed by ELISA. ChemR23 expression on FLSs was determined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. Cytokine production from FLSs was measured by ELISA. FLS cell motility was evaluated by utilizing a scrape motility assay. We also examined the stimulating effect of chemerin on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2), p38MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and Akt, as well as on the degradation of regulator of NF-κB (IκBα) in FLSs, by Western blot analysis.
Chemerin was expressed on endothelial cells and synovial lining and sublining cells. ChemR23 was expressed on macrophages, immature DCs and FLSs and a few mature DCs in the RA synovium. Chemerin and ChemR23 were highly expressed in the RA synovium compared with osteoarthritis. Chemerin and ChemR23 were expressed on unstimulated FLSs. TNF-α and IFN-γ upregulated chemerin production. Chemerin enhanced the production of IL-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 by FLSs, as well as increasing FLS motility. The stimulatory effects of chemerin on FLSs were mediated by activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and Akt, but not by JNK1/2. Degradation of IκB in FLSs was not promoted by chemerin stimulation. Inhibition of the ERK1/2, p38MAPK and Akt signaling pathways significantly suppressed chemerin-induced IL-6 production. Moreover, blockade of the p38MAPK and Akt pathways, but not the ERK1/2 pathway, inhibited chemerin-enhanced cell motility.
The interaction of chemerin and ChemR23 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA through the activation of FLSs.

Download full-text


Available from: Chie Miyabe,
  • Source
    • "and AGS cell migration to chemerin were abolished when cells were treated with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632. Consistent with previous studies, we also show that Ga i/o , ERK1/2, and p38 play an important role in chemerin-mediated chemotaxis (Wittamer et al., 2003; Kaneko et al., 2011; Hart and Greaves, 2010; Wang et al., 2014). In particular, Wang et al. have previously shown ERK1/2 and p38-dependent AGS cell migration to chemerin and inflammatory cytokine expression (Wang et al., 2014); however, this function was not attributed to any particular chemerin receptor. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemerin is an adipose-derived hormone that regulates immunity and energy homesotasis. To date, all known chemerin functions have been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled receptor chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). Chemerin is also the only known ligand for a second receptor, G protein-coupled receptor-1 (GPR1), whose signaling and function remains unknown. This study investigated the in vitro signal transduction mechanisms of CMKLR1 and GPR1 using a panel of luciferase-reporters and pathway-specific inhibitors. Herein we report the novel finding that chemerin signals through a RhoA and rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK)-dependent pathway for activation of the transcriptional regulator serum-response factor (SRF). Despite similarities in RhoA/ROCK, Gαi/o, and MAPK signaling, we also demonstrate species-specific and receptor-dependent variations in GPR1 and CMKLR1 signaling and expression of the SRF target genes EGR1, FOS and VCL. Moreover, we demonstrate that signaling through p38, Gαi/o, RhoA, and ROCK is required for chemerin-mediated chemotaxis of L1.2 lymphocytes and AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first empirical evidence that GPR1 is a functional chemerin receptor and identify RhoA/SRF as a novel chemerin-signaling axis via both CMKLR1 and GPR1.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2015.09.002 · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemerin stimulates migration of leukocytes to sites of inflammation and also increases inflammatory signaling in chondrocytes suggesting a function of chemerin in joint inflammation. Synovial fibroblasts (SF) are critically involved in synovitis and subsequent cartilage destruction. Here, we analyzed whether synovial fibroblasts express chemerin and its receptor CMKLR1. Further, the role of chemerin in synovial fibroblast chemotaxis, proliferation, insulin response and release of inflammatory proteins was studied. Synovial tissue sections were labeled with chemerin antibody and chemerin was measured in synovial fluid by ELISA. Chemerin mRNA and protein as well as CMKLR1 expression were determined in SFs from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Effects of chemerin on cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and on proliferation, migration and insulin signaling were analyzed appropriately. SFs expressed CMKLR1 and chemerin mRNA, and chemerin protein was found in cell supernatants of synovial fibroblasts. Immunohistochemistry detected chemerin in synovial tissue predominantly localized within the lining layer. Chemerin was present in synovial fluids of RA, OA and psoriatic arthritis patients in similar concentrations. Chemerin neither increased IL-6 levels nor MMP-2 or -9 activity in SFs. Also, it did not act as a chemoattractant for these cells. With respect to intracellular signaling, neither basal nor insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt was affected. However, chemerin significantly increased TLR4 mRNA and synthesis of CCL2 in SFs while CCL4 and -5 were not altered. Cell proliferation of SFs, however, was modestly reduced by chemerin. These data show that human SFs express both chemerin and its receptor. As chemerin enhanced expression of TLR4 and induced release of CCL2 in SFs, a role of this protein in innate immune system-associated joint inflammation is proposed.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 02/2012; 92(1):90-6. DOI:10.1016/j.yexmp.2011.10.006 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: NKG2D is a stimulatory receptor expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T-cells, and γδ T-cells. NKG2D expression is normally absent from CD4(+) T-cells, however recently a subset of NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells has been found, which is specific for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This particular subset of HCMV-specific NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells possesses effector-like functions, thus resembling the subsets of NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells found in other chronic inflammations. However, the precise mechanism leading to NKG2D expression on HCMV-specific CD4(+) T-cells is currently not known. In this study we used genome-wide analysis of individual genes and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate the gene expression profile of NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells, generated from HCMV-primed CD4(+) T-cells. We show that the HCMV-primed NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells possess a higher differentiated phenotype than the NKG2D(-) CD4(+) T-cells, both at the gene expression profile and cytokine profile. The ability to express NKG2D at the cell surface was primarily determined by the activation or differentiation status of the CD4(+) T-cells and not by the antigen presenting cells. We observed a correlation between CD94 and NKG2D expression in the CD4(+) T-cells following HCMV stimulation. However, knock-down of CD94 did not affect NKG2D cell surface expression or signaling. In addition, we show that NKG2D is recycled at the cell surface of activated CD4(+) T-cells, whereas it is produced de novo in resting CD4(+) T-cells. These findings provide novel information about the gene expression profile of HCMV-primed NKG2D(+) CD4(+) T-cells, as well as the mechanisms regulating NKG2D cell surface expression.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e41577. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041577 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Show more