Mitral valve replacement is a viable alternative to mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation: a case-matched study.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.45). 10/2011; 92(4):1358-65; discussion 1365-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.05.056
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Comparisons of mitral valve repair with mitral valve replacement for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) have been limited by differences in preoperative and operative characteristics of patients undergoing these two types of surgical treatment. We performed a propensity-based, case-matched analysis to examine whether patients who undergo mitral valve repair and those who undergo mitral valve replacement for IMR have similar long-term outcomes.
We compared 65 patients who underwent mitral valve replacement for IMR between 2001 and 2010 with 65 patients who underwent mitral repair during the same period on the basis of age, concomitant coronary bypass grafting, gender, left ventricular function, preoperative pulmonary hypertension, and urgency of operation. Mitral replacement involved preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. The mean study follow-up period was 2.5 ± 2.1 years.
Two patients who underwent mitral valve repair died at 30 days postoperatively and three patients died after valve replacement. Late survival was the same in the two groups (p = 0.4). Recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR) (grade 2+ or higher) at late follow-up was observed in 15 patients (23%) after repair; however, only 1 patient (2%) had MR with a grade of more than 2+. Mitral valve repair was more commonly associated with recurrent MR (grade 2+ or higher) than was mitral valve replacement (p = 0.04). Patients in both groups had similar freedom from valve-related complications and similar left ventricular function at follow-up (both p > 0.2).
Mitral valve replacement remains a viable option for the treatment of IMR. Although mitral valve repair effectively protects against persistent or recurrent moderate-to-severe MR, mitral valve replacement provides better freedom from mild-to-moderate MR in this population, with a low incidence of valve-related complications. Notably, there was no significant difference in left ventricular function between the valve-repair and valve-replacement groups at follow-up.

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    ABSTRACT: Mitral valve (MV) surgery for ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) in patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is associated with poor outcomes. The optimal surgical strategy for IMR in these patients remains controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the early mortality and mid-term survival of MV repair versus MV replacement in patients with IMR and depressed LVEF undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A retrospective, observational, cohort study was undertaken of prospectively collected data on 126 consecutive CABG patients with IMR and LVEF <40% undergoing either MV repair (n = 98, 78%) or MV replacement (n = 28, 22%) between July 2002 and February 2011. The overall mortality rate was 7.9% (n = 10). MV replacement was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of death compared with MV repair [17.9%, n = 5 vs 5.1%, n = 5; odds ratio (OR) 4.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-15.1, P = 0.04]. However, after adjusting for preoperative risk factors, the type of surgical procedure was not an independent risk factor for early mortality (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-31, P = 0.7). Multivariable analysis showed that preoperative LVEF (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, P = 0.018), preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1-1.02, P = 0.025), preoperative left ventricle end-systolic diameter (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-1.0, P = 0.05) and preoperative left atrial diameter (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6, P = 0.015) were independent risk factors of early mortality. At the median follow-up of 45 months (interquartile range 20-68 months), the mid-term survival rate was 74% in the MV repair group and 70% in the MV replacement group (P = 0.08). At follow-up, predictors of worse survival were BNP levels [hazard ratio (HR) 1.0, 95% CI 1.0-1.01, P = 0.047], preoperative renal failure (HR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-20.3, P = 0.039) and preoperative atrial fibrillation (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10, P = 0.032). MV repair in CABG patients with IMR and depressed LVEF is not superior to MV replacement with regard to operative early mortality and mid-term survival.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 03/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) occurs in 20% of patients after myocardial infarction. There is no agreement as to the best surgical option. With no prospective randomized controlled trials available, our objective was to perform a meta-analysis comparing replacement and repair. A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, and Google Scholar. The following keywords were included: "ischemic mitral regurgitation" and "repair or replacement." Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to reflect current surgical practice (subvalvular preservation, ring annuloplasty). Primary outcomes of interest were operative mortality and survival. Secondary outcomes analyzed were change in ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular (LV) dimensions, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, reoperation rate, and 2+ or greater recurrence of mitral regurgitation. Of 280 articles, only 12 satisfied all inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles included 2,508 patients, 64% of whom received valve replacement. Operative mortality was lower after repair (odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.85; p = 0.001); no difference was found when only articles with patients operated on mainly after 1998 were included (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.44 -1.12; p = 0.14). Survival was similar (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.66-1.13; p = 0.28). No differences in EF, ventricular dimensions, NYHA class, and reoperation were found. Regurgitation recurrence was higher in the repair group (OR, 7.51; 95% CI, 3.7-15.23; p < 0.001). Mitral valve repair is associated with lower operative mortality but higher recurrence of regurgitation in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. No differences were found regarding survival, NYHA class, and functional indicators.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 12/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The proper treatment of chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR) is still under evaluation. The different role of mitral valve repair (MVr) or mitral valve prosthesis insertion (MVPI) is still not defined. Methods From May 2009 to December 2011 167 patients with ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 40% had MV surgery for CIMR, MVr in 135 (80.8%) and MVPI in 32 (19.2%). Indication to MVPI was a MV coaptation depth > 10 mm. EF was lower (26 ± 7 vs 32 ± 6, p = 0.0000) in MVPI, whereas MR grade (3.6 ± 0.8 vs 2.7 ± 0.9, p = 0.0000), left ventricle dimensions (end diastolic, LVEDD, 62 ± 7 vs 57 ± 6 mm, p = 0.0001; end systolic, LVESD, 49 ± 8 vs 44 ± 8 mm, p = 0.0018), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (51 ± 22 vs 41 ± 16 mm Hg, p = 0.0037) and NYHA Class (3.6 ± 0.5 vs 2.8 ± 0.6, p = 0.0000) were higher. Results In-hospital mortality was similar (3.1 vs 3.7%) as well as 3-year survival (86 ± 6 vs 88 ± 4) and survival in NYHA Class I/II (80 ± 5 vs 83 ± 4). One hundred thirty nine patients had an echocardiographic evaluation after a minimum of 4 months (13 ± 8). EF rose significantly in both groups (from 26 ± 7% to 30 ± 4%, p = 0.0122, and from 32 ± 6% to 35 ± 8%, p = 0.0018). LVESD reduced significantly in both groups (from 49 ± 8 to 43 ± 9 mm, p = 0.0109, and from 44 ± 8 to 41 ± 7 mm, p = 0.0033). MR grade was significantly lower in patients who had MVPI (0.1 ± 0.2 vs 0.3 ± 0.3, p = 0.0011). Conclusions With appropriate indications, MVPI is a safe procedure which provides similar results to MVr with lower MR return, even if addressed to patients with worse preoperative parameters.
    IJC Heart & Vessels. 01/2014; 3:32–36.


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