Novel Insights into the Biotin Carboxylase Domain Reactions of Pyruvate Carboxylase from Rhizobium etli

Institute for Enzyme Research and Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53726, United States.
Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.02). 09/2011; 50(45):9724-37. DOI: 10.1021/bi2012788
Source: PubMed


The catalytic mechanism of the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin in the biotin carboxylase domain of pyruvate carboxylase from R. etli (RePC) is common to the biotin-dependent carboxylases. The current site-directed mutagenesis study has clarified the catalytic functions of several residues proposed to be pivotal in MgATP-binding and cleavage (Glu218 and Lys245), HCO(3)(-) deprotonation (Glu305 and Arg301), and biotin enolization (Arg353). The E218A mutant was inactive for any reaction involving the BC domain and the E218Q mutant exhibited a 75-fold decrease in k(cat) for both pyruvate carboxylation and the full reverse reaction. The E305A mutant also showed a 75- and 80-fold decrease in k(cat) for both pyruvate carboxylation and the full reverse reaction, respectively. While Glu305 appears to be the active site base which deprotonates HCO(3)(-), Lys245, Glu218, and Arg301 are proposed to contribute to catalysis through substrate binding interactions. The reactions of the biotin carboxylase and carboxyl transferase domains were uncoupled in the R353M-catalyzed reactions, indicating that Arg353 may not only facilitate the formation of the biotin enolate but also assist in coordinating catalysis between the two spatially distinct active sites. The 2.5- and 4-fold increase in k(cat) for the full reverse reaction with the R353K and R353M mutants, respectively, suggests that mutation of Arg353 allows carboxybiotin increased access to the biotin carboxylase domain active site. The proposed chemical mechanism is initiated by the deprotonation of HCO(3)(-) by Glu305 and concurrent nucleophilic attack on the γ-phosphate of MgATP. The trianionic carboxyphosphate intermediate formed reversibly decomposes in the active site to CO(2) and PO(4)(3-). PO(4)(3-) then acts as the base to deprotonate the tethered biotin at the N(1)-position. Stabilized by interactions between the ureido oxygen and Arg353, the biotin-enolate reacts with CO(2) to give carboxybiotin. The formation of a distinct salt bridge between Arg353 and Glu248 is proposed to aid in partially precluding carboxybiotin from reentering the biotin carboxylase active site, thus preventing its premature decarboxylation prior to the binding of a carboxyl acceptor in the carboxyl transferase domain.

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Available from: Kathy Surinya, Nov 25, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To effect catalysis, the tethered biotin of PC must gain access to active sites in both the biotin carboxylase domain and the carboxyl transferase domain. Previous studies have demonstrated that a mutation of threonine 882 to alanine in PC from Rhizobium etli renders the carboxyl transferase domain inactive and favors the positioning of biotin in the biotin carboxylase domain. We report the 2.4 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the Rhizobium etli PC T882A mutant which reveals the first high-resolution description of the domain interaction between the biotin carboxyl carrier protein domain and the biotin carboxylase domain. The overall quaternary arrangement of Rhizobium etli PC remains highly asymmetrical and is independent of the presence of allosteric activator. While biotin is observed in the biotin carboxylase domain, its access to the active site is precluded by the interaction between Arg353 and Glu248, revealing a mechanism for regulating carboxybiotin access to the BC domain active site. The binding location for the biotin carboxyl carrier protein domain demonstrates that tethered biotin cannot bind in the biotin carboxylase domain active site in the same orientation as free biotin, helping to explain the difference in catalysis observed between tethered biotin and free biotin substrates in biotin carboxylase enzymes. Electron density located in the biotin carboxylase domain active site is assigned to phosphonoacetate, offering a probable location for the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate formed during biotin carboxylation. The insights gained from the T882A Rhizobium etli PC crystal structure provide a new series of catalytic snapshots in PC and offer a revised perspective on catalysis in the biotin-dependent enzyme family.
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    Biochemistry 09/2011; 50(45):9694-707. DOI:10.1021/bi201276r · 3.02 Impact Factor
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