Adipose tissue engineering: three different approaches to seed preadipocytes on a collagen-elastin matrix.
ABSTRACT Millions of plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures are performed each year to repair soft-tissue defects that result from significant burns, tumor resections, or congenital defects. Tissue-engineering strategies have been investigated to develop methods for generating soft-tissue. Preadipocytes represent a promising autologous cell source for adipose tissue engineering. These immature precursor cells, which are located between the mature adipocytes in the adipose tissue, are much more resistant to mechanical stress and ischemic conditions than mature adipocytes. To use preadipocytes for tissue-engineering purposes, cells were isolated from human adipose tissue and seeded onto scaffolds. Once processed, preadipocytes become subject to the human tissue act and require handling under much tighter regulations. Therefore, we intended to identify any influence caused by processing of preadipocytes prior to seeding on the reconstructed adipose tissue formation.
Human preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from discarded tissue during abdominoplasties of healthy men and women. Preadipocytes were divided into 3 groups. Cells of group I were seeded onto the scaffold directly after isolation, cells of group II were proliferated for 4 days before seeding, and cells of group III were proliferated and induced to differentiate before seeded onto the scaffold. A 3-dimensional scaffold (Matriderm, Dr. Otto Suwelack Skin and Health Care GmbH, Billerbeck, Germany) containing bovine collagen and elastin served as a carrier. Fourteen days after isolation, all scaffolds were histologically evaluated, using hematoxylin and eosin, anti-Ki-67 antibody, as well as immunofluorescence labeling with Pref-1 antibody (DLK (C-19), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antibody, and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole).
Cells of all groups adhered to the scaffolds on day 21 after isolation. Cells of groups I (freshly isolated preadipocytes) and II (proliferated preadipocytes) adhered well and penetrated into deeper layers of the matrix. In group III (induced preadipocytes), penetration of cells was primarily observed to the surface area of the scaffold.
: The collagen-elastin matrix serves as a useful scaffold for adipose tissue engineering. Freshly isolated preadipocytes as well as proliferated preadipocytes showed good penetration into deeper layers of the scaffold, whereas induced preadipocytes attached primarily to the surface of the matrix. We conclude that there might be different indications for each approach.
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ABSTRACT: European Union prohibited the marketing of cosmetic products containing constituents that have been examined through animal experiments. Thus, non-animal test models are needed to replace animal experiments. The reconstructed skin models are important as a test system for cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing. In the present study, we tried to develop an optimal skin equivalent model containing basement membrane and epidermis. For this purpose, we used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or preadipocytes as well as fibroblasts as the dermal matrix cells. The formation of basement membrane and epidermis was verified by immunohistochemical stains. Among various models, the epidermis was thickest when MSCs were used in the dermal matrix. Furthermore, PCNA and involucrin distribution showed that dermal matrix with MSCs resembled human skin. Therefore, skin equivalents with MSCs could be developed as a non-animal test model to replace animal experiments.Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea. 01/2012; 38(3).
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ABSTRACT: New skin substitutes for burn medicine or reconstructive surgery pose an important issue in plastic surgery. Matriderm® is a clinically approved three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix which is already used as a dermal substitute of full thickness burn wounds. The drawback of an avital matrix is the limited integration in full thickness skin defects, depending on the defect size. To further optimize this process, Matriderm® has also been studied as a matrix for tissue engineering of skin albeit long-term cultivation of the matrix with cells has been difficult. Cells have generally been seeded onto the matrix with high cell loss and minimal time-consuming migration. Here we developed a cell seeded skin equivalent after microtransfer of cells directly into the matrix. First, cells were cultured, and microinjected into Matriderm®. Then, cell viability in the matrix was determined by histology in vitro. As a next step, the skin substitute was applied in vivo into a full thickness rodent wound model. The wound coverage and healing was observed over a period of two weeks followed by histological examination assessing cell viability, proliferation and integration into the host. Viable and proliferating cells could be found throughout the entire matrix. The presented skin substitute resembles healthy skin in morphology and integrity. Based on this study, future investigations are planned to examine behaviour of epidermal stem cells injected into a collagen-elastin matrix under the aspects of establishment of stem cell niches and differentiation.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(7):14460-14474. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Management of soft tissue deficits resulting from congenital abnormalities, trauma, systemic disease, and tumors is a particularly challenging field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Fat grafting, a technique traditionally used in the correction of facial asymmetry, is commonly seen in aesthetic procedures which use the grafted fat for soft tissue augmentation and recontouring. Despite its widespread use in reconstruction and aesthetic surgery, therapeutic modalities applied in fat grafting are crude and the results of this intervention are unpredictable. The aim of this review was to present the most recent evidence regarding experimental studies and designs which confirmed or disproved fat volume expansion or fat maintenance after autologous fat grafting.Annals of plastic surgery 04/2014; 72(4):475-83. · 1.29 Impact Factor