Adipose Tissue Engineering Three Different Approaches to Seed Preadipocytes on a Collagen-Elastin Matrix
ABSTRACT Millions of plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures are performed each year to repair soft-tissue defects that result from significant burns, tumor resections, or congenital defects. Tissue-engineering strategies have been investigated to develop methods for generating soft-tissue. Preadipocytes represent a promising autologous cell source for adipose tissue engineering. These immature precursor cells, which are located between the mature adipocytes in the adipose tissue, are much more resistant to mechanical stress and ischemic conditions than mature adipocytes. To use preadipocytes for tissue-engineering purposes, cells were isolated from human adipose tissue and seeded onto scaffolds. Once processed, preadipocytes become subject to the human tissue act and require handling under much tighter regulations. Therefore, we intended to identify any influence caused by processing of preadipocytes prior to seeding on the reconstructed adipose tissue formation.
Human preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from discarded tissue during abdominoplasties of healthy men and women. Preadipocytes were divided into 3 groups. Cells of group I were seeded onto the scaffold directly after isolation, cells of group II were proliferated for 4 days before seeding, and cells of group III were proliferated and induced to differentiate before seeded onto the scaffold. A 3-dimensional scaffold (Matriderm, Dr. Otto Suwelack Skin and Health Care GmbH, Billerbeck, Germany) containing bovine collagen and elastin served as a carrier. Fourteen days after isolation, all scaffolds were histologically evaluated, using hematoxylin and eosin, anti-Ki-67 antibody, as well as immunofluorescence labeling with Pref-1 antibody (DLK (C-19), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antibody, and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole).
Cells of all groups adhered to the scaffolds on day 21 after isolation. Cells of groups I (freshly isolated preadipocytes) and II (proliferated preadipocytes) adhered well and penetrated into deeper layers of the matrix. In group III (induced preadipocytes), penetration of cells was primarily observed to the surface area of the scaffold.
: The collagen-elastin matrix serves as a useful scaffold for adipose tissue engineering. Freshly isolated preadipocytes as well as proliferated preadipocytes showed good penetration into deeper layers of the scaffold, whereas induced preadipocytes attached primarily to the surface of the matrix. We conclude that there might be different indications for each approach.
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ABSTRACT: European Union prohibited the marketing of cosmetic products containing constituents that have been examined through animal experiments. Thus, non-animal test models are needed to replace animal experiments. The reconstructed skin models are important as a test system for cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing. In the present study, we tried to develop an optimal skin equivalent model containing basement membrane and epidermis. For this purpose, we used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or preadipocytes as well as fibroblasts as the dermal matrix cells. The formation of basement membrane and epidermis was verified by immunohistochemical stains. Among various models, the epidermis was thickest when MSCs were used in the dermal matrix. Furthermore, PCNA and involucrin distribution showed that dermal matrix with MSCs resembled human skin. Therefore, skin equivalents with MSCs could be developed as a non-animal test model to replace animal experiments.01/2012; 38(3).
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ABSTRACT: Autologous adipose transplantation is rapidly gaining popularity for the restoration of soft tissue defects and lipoatrophy as well as for aesthetic improvements (e.g., facial reconstruction and rejuvenation). However, the current technique is crude that suffers from serious demerits, particularly the long-term unpredictability of volume maintenance due to resorption of the grafted adipose tissue and limited adipogenesis. We hypothesized that the adjuvant use of patient-derived adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) may enhance the overall outcome of autologous fat grafting in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous SVF, with a mean cell number of (4.8±3.79)×10(7) cells/mL and a mean cell viability of 71.8%, and autologous PRF, with sustained release of multiple angiogenic growth factors, were created before surgical use. The following adipose tissue implants were injected subcutaneously into a rabbit ear's auricula according to the following study design: 2 mL adipose granules and 0.2 mL normal saline solution (AG+NS group), 2 mL adipose granules and 0.2 mL SVF (AG+SVF group), 2 mL adipose granules and 0.2 mL PRF (AG+PRF group), or 2 mL adipose granules combined with 0.1 mL SVF and 0.1 mL PRF (AG+SVF+PRF group). Histological examinations showed that the implanted adipose granules were well engrafted in the AG+SVF+PRF group, with a higher microvessel density 4 weeks postimplantation compared with the other three groups (p<0.01). Twenty-four weeks postimplantation, the resorption rates of implanted tissue in each group were 49.39%±9.47%, 27.25%±4.37%, 36.41%±8.47%, and 17.37%±6.22%, respectively, and were significantly different (p<0.01). The results demonstrated that the efficacy of adipose tissue implantation can be enhanced by using autologous PRF and SVF as therapeutic adjuvants, offering a clinically translatable strategy for soft tissue augmentation and reconstruction.Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 06/2012; 19(1). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEC.2012.0126 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Dermal substitute are used for soft-tissue defect for their functional and aesthetic advantages. Matriderm(®) 1mm, single layer dermal matrix, composed of collagen and elastin covered by a split thickness skin graft simultaneously to its application, has been used most often in burned surgery. This prospective series evaluates the interest of this recent dermal matrix in reconstructive surgery. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Twenty-eight patients have been treated with the substitute in our department for reconstructive surgery indication between November 2008 and May 2012. Indications were tissue losses treatment after limb or trunk sarcoma resection, melanoma, extended baso- or spinocellular carcinoma, palmoplantar keratodermy, burn sequels, or traumatic tissue losses. Indications were preferentially deep tissue losses, functional areas and the face. RESULTS: Mean treated area has been 82.4 cm(2) (10 to 600 cm(2)). Mean taken rate has been 87±19% of the area and mean day of discharge has been 4.8 days and the mean cost per patient 906.5 euros. Negative wound therapy, until D3, was used 6 times. Three patients treated for limb sarcoma had radiotherapy performed on the grafted area. Aesthetic and functional results have been encouraging. CONCLUSIONS: Matriderm(®) 1mm, dermal substitute commonly used in acute burn treatment can be indicated in reconstructive surgery. This series show that it permits to obtain a good graft taken rate, a quick healing with a satisfying aesthetic and functional results and permit an early discharge. However, its indications are limited by its cost.Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 02/2013; 58(3). DOI:10.1016/j.anplas.2013.01.001 · 0.59 Impact Factor