Adipose Tissue Engineering Three Different Approaches to Seed Preadipocytes on a Collagen-Elastin Matrix
ABSTRACT Millions of plastic and reconstructive surgical procedures are performed each year to repair soft-tissue defects that result from significant burns, tumor resections, or congenital defects. Tissue-engineering strategies have been investigated to develop methods for generating soft-tissue. Preadipocytes represent a promising autologous cell source for adipose tissue engineering. These immature precursor cells, which are located between the mature adipocytes in the adipose tissue, are much more resistant to mechanical stress and ischemic conditions than mature adipocytes. To use preadipocytes for tissue-engineering purposes, cells were isolated from human adipose tissue and seeded onto scaffolds. Once processed, preadipocytes become subject to the human tissue act and require handling under much tighter regulations. Therefore, we intended to identify any influence caused by processing of preadipocytes prior to seeding on the reconstructed adipose tissue formation.
Human preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from discarded tissue during abdominoplasties of healthy men and women. Preadipocytes were divided into 3 groups. Cells of group I were seeded onto the scaffold directly after isolation, cells of group II were proliferated for 4 days before seeding, and cells of group III were proliferated and induced to differentiate before seeded onto the scaffold. A 3-dimensional scaffold (Matriderm, Dr. Otto Suwelack Skin and Health Care GmbH, Billerbeck, Germany) containing bovine collagen and elastin served as a carrier. Fourteen days after isolation, all scaffolds were histologically evaluated, using hematoxylin and eosin, anti-Ki-67 antibody, as well as immunofluorescence labeling with Pref-1 antibody (DLK (C-19), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antibody, and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole).
Cells of all groups adhered to the scaffolds on day 21 after isolation. Cells of groups I (freshly isolated preadipocytes) and II (proliferated preadipocytes) adhered well and penetrated into deeper layers of the matrix. In group III (induced preadipocytes), penetration of cells was primarily observed to the surface area of the scaffold.
: The collagen-elastin matrix serves as a useful scaffold for adipose tissue engineering. Freshly isolated preadipocytes as well as proliferated preadipocytes showed good penetration into deeper layers of the scaffold, whereas induced preadipocytes attached primarily to the surface of the matrix. We conclude that there might be different indications for each approach.
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ABSTRACT: Acellular nerve scaffold has been widely used for peripheral nerve defect treatment. However, the structure of traditional acellular nerve scaffold is dense; the interval porosity and void diameter are too small to meet the requirement of cell seeding, which limits the application. This study was designed to prepare a novel acellular nerve scaffold by the technique of hypotonic buffer combined with freeze-drying, and use PKH26 fluorescent labeling combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging system to evaluate the biological behavior of tissue-engineered nerve in vitro and in vivo. According to light and electron microscopy, the scaffold, which microarchitecture was similar to the fibrous framework of rabbit sciatic nerves, was cell-free and rich in laminin, collagen I and collagen III. In vitro experiment showed that the novel acellular nerve scaffold could provide a 3-D environment to support the attachment, proliferation and migration of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). ADSCs labeled with fluorescent dye PKH26 were then seeded on scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 4 weeks, nerve-like tissue rounded by vessels formed. Cells in the tissue seemed to confirm that they originated from the labeled ADSCs, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescent imaging. In conclusion, the prepared novel acellular nerve scaffold can be used as a new kind of nerve scaffold material, which is more conducible for seeding cells; And PKH26 fluorescent labeling and in vivo fluorescent imaging can be useful for cell tracking and analyzing cell-scaffold constructs in vivo.Neuroscience Letters 10/2013; 556. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.021 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the popularity of a simultaneous application of dermal matrices and split-thickness skin grafts, scarce evidence exists about the process of revascularizationinvolved. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the progression of revascularizationby high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) in a porcine excisional wound model.Following the surgical procedure creating 5x5 cm2 full-thickness defects on the back, one area was covered with an autologous split-thickness skin graft alone (control group), the other with a collagen-elastin dermal matrix plus split-thickness skin graft (dermal matrix group). Two skin biopsiesper each group and location were performed on day 5, 10, 15, and 28 postoperatively, and separately processed for H&Eas well as HREM.The dermal layer wasthickerin the dermal matrix group vs. control on day 5 and 28. No differences were found for revascularization by conventional histology. In HREM the dermal matrix did not appear to decelerate the revascularization process. The presence of the dermal matrix could be distinguished until day 15.By day 28 the structure of the dermal matrix could no longer be delineated and was replaced by autologous tissue.As assessed by conventional histology and confirmed by HREM the revascularization process was comparable in both groups, notably with regard to the vertical ingrowth of sprouting vessels.The presented technique of HREM is a valuable addition for analyzing small vessel sprouting in dermal matrices in the future.Wound Repair and Regeneration 10/2014; 22(6). DOI:10.1111/wrr.12233 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New skin substitutes for burn medicine or reconstructive surgery pose an important issue in plastic surgery. Matriderm® is a clinically approved three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix which is already used as a dermal substitute of full thickness burn wounds. The drawback of an avital matrix is the limited integration in full thickness skin defects, depending on the defect size. To further optimize this process, Matriderm® has also been studied as a matrix for tissue engineering of skin albeit long-term cultivation of the matrix with cells has been difficult. Cells have generally been seeded onto the matrix with high cell loss and minimal time-consuming migration. Here we developed a cell seeded skin equivalent after microtransfer of cells directly into the matrix. First, cells were cultured, and microinjected into Matriderm®. Then, cell viability in the matrix was determined by histology in vitro. As a next step, the skin substitute was applied in vivo into a full thickness rodent wound model. The wound coverage and healing was observed over a period of two weeks followed by histological examination assessing cell viability, proliferation and integration into the host. Viable and proliferating cells could be found throughout the entire matrix. The presented skin substitute resembles healthy skin in morphology and integrity. Based on this study, future investigations are planned to examine behaviour of epidermal stem cells injected into a collagen-elastin matrix under the aspects of establishment of stem cell niches and differentiation.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 07/2013; 14(7):14460-14474. DOI:10.3390/ijms140714460 · 2.34 Impact Factor