Adaptive servo-ventilation improves renal function in patients with heart failure.
ABSTRACT Impaired cardiac function and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in heart failure (HF) patients. Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) therapy improves cardiac function in HF patients regardless of the SDB severity through hemodynamic support and prevention of repetitive hypoxic stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ASV therapy improves renal function in HF patients with SDB.
Of 59 consecutively enrolled HF patients, 43 with moderate-to-severe SDB underwent ASV therapy. HF patients were divided into the ASV-treated group (n = 27) and the non-ASV-treated group (n = 16). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), echocardiographic parameters, and inflammatory biomarkers were measured before and 12 months after ASV initiation. Improvement in the eGFR was found in the ASV-treated group, but not in the non-ASV-treated group. There was a positive correlation between the increases in eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.488, p = 0.001). The changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were negatively correlated with change in the eGFR (r = -0.416, p = 0.006).
ASV therapy could improve renal dysfunction in HF patients through hemodynamic support. Additionally, prevention of SDB with the use of ASV therapy could exert anti-inflammatory effects, which could contribute to the improvement of renal function in HF patients.
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ABSTRACT: Because renal function is affected by chronic heart failure (CHF) and it relates to both cardiovascular and hemodynamic properties, it should have additional prognostic value. We studied whether renal function is a predictor for mortality in advanced CHF, and we assessed its relative contribution compared with other established risk factors. In addition, we studied the relation between renal function and neurohormonal activation. The study population consisted of 1906 patients with CHF who were enrolled in a recent survival trial (Second Prospective Randomized study of Ibopamine on Mortality and Efficacy). In a subgroup of 372 patients, plasma neurohormones were determined. The baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR(c)) was calculated using the Cockroft Gault equation. GFR(c) was the most powerful predictor of mortality; it was followed by New York Heart Association functional class and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Patients in the lowest quartile of GFR(c) values (<44 mL/min) had almost 3 times the risk of mortality (relative risk, 2. 85; P<0.001) of patients in the highest quartile (>76 mL/min). Impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was only modestly predictive (P=0.053). GFR(c) was inversely related with N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; r=-0.53) and, to a lesser extent, with ANP itself (r=-0.35; both P<0.001). Impaired renal function (GFR(c)) is a stronger predictor of mortality than impaired cardiac function (LVEF and New York Heart Association class) in advanced CHF, and it is associated with increased levels of N-terminal ANP. Moreover, impaired renal function was not related to LVEF, which suggests that factors other than reduced cardiac output are causally involved.Circulation 08/2000; 102(2):203-10. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) is a novel method of ventilatory support designed for Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in heart failure. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of one night of ASV on sleep and breathing with the effect of other treatments. Fourteen subjects with stable cardiac failure and receiving optimal medical treatment were tested untreated and on four treatment nights in random order: nasal oxygen (2 L/min), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (mean 9.25 cm H(2)O), bilevel (mean 13.5/5.2 cm H(2)O), or ASV largely at the default settings (mean pressure 7 to 9 cm H(2)O) during polysomnography. Thermistor apnea + hypopnea index (AHI) declined from 44.5 +/- 3.4/h (SEM) untreated to 28.2 +/- 3.4/h oxygen and 26.8 +/- 4.6/h CPAP (both p < 0.001 versus control), 14.8 +/- 2.3/h bilevel, and 6.3 +/- 0.9/h ASV (p < 0.001 versus bilevel). Effort band AHI behaved similarly. Arousal index decreased from 65.1 +/- 3.9/h untreated to 29.8 +/- 2.8/h oxygen and 29.9 +/- 3.2/h CPAP, to 16.0 +/- 1.3/h bilevel and 14.7 +/- 1.8/h ASV (p < 0.01 versus all except bilevel). There were large increases in slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep with ASV but not with oxygen or CPAP. All subjects preferred ASV to CPAP. One night ASV suppresses central sleep apnea and/or CSR (CSA/CSR) in heart failure and improves sleep quality better than CPAP or 2 L/min oxygen.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2001; 164(4):614-9. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic heart failure is associated with inflammation and neurohormonal imbalance. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, exert anti-inflammatory and vascular protective effects. We hypothesized that short-term statin therapy may have beneficial effects in patients with nonischemic heart failure. Sixty-three patients with symptomatic, nonischemic, dilated cardiomyopathy were randomly divided into 2 groups. One group received simvastatin (n=24), and the other group received placebo (n=27). The initial dose of simvastatin was 5 mg/d, which was increased to 10 mg/d after 4 weeks. After 14 weeks, patients receiving simvastatin exhibited a modest reduction in serum cholesterol level compared with patients receiving placebo (130+/-13 versus 148+/-18, P<0.05). Patients treated with simvastatin had a lower New York Heart Association functional class compared with patients receiving placebo (2.04+/-0.06 versus 2.32+/-0.05, P<0.01). This corresponded to improved left ventricular ejection fraction in the simvastatin group (34+/-3 to 41+/-4%, P<0.05) but not in the placebo group. Furthermore, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and brain natriuretic peptide were significantly lower in the simvastatin group compared with the placebo group. Short-term statin therapy improves cardiac function, neurohormonal imbalance, and symptoms associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. These findings suggest that statins may have therapeutic benefits in patients with heart failure irrespective of serum cholesterol levels or atherosclerotic heart disease.Circulation 08/2003; 108(7):839-43. · 15.20 Impact Factor