Ventilator-associated pneumonia in burn patients: A cause or consequence of critical illness?
Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 10/2011; 5(5):663-73. DOI: 10.1586/ers.11.61
Infectious complications are a constant threat to thermally injured patients during hospitalizations and are a predominant cause of death. Most of the infections that develop in burn patients are nosocomial and of a pulmonary etiology. The bacteria that cause ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) take advantage of the fact that uniquely among intensive care unit patients endotracheal intubation allows them a 'free' passage to the sterile lower airways; however, the combination of severe thermal injury (systemic immunosuppression) and inhalation injury (local immunosuppression and tissue injury) create an ideal environment for development of VAP. Thus, strategies directed at preventing and treating VAP in burn patients must address not only rapid extubation and VAP prevention bundles known to work in other intensive care unit populations, but therapies directed to more rapid wound healing and restoration of pulmonary patency.
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ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is common among critically ill burn patients and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among them. Prediction of mortality in patients with severe burns remains unreliable. The aim of this research is to study the incidence, early diagnosis and management of nosocomial pneumonia, and to discuss the relationship between pneumonia and death in burn patients. This prospective study was carried out on 80 burn patients (35 males and 45 females) admitted to Menoufiya University Hospital Burn Center and Chest Department, Egypt, from September 2011 to March 2012. Our findings showed an overall burn patient mortality rate of 26.25 % (21/80), 15% (12/80) incidence of pneumonia, and a 50% (6/12) mortality rate among patients with pneumonia compared to 22 % (15/68) for those without pneumonia. The incidence of pneumonia was twice as high in the subset of patients with inhalation injury as among those without inhalation injury (P< 0.001). It was found that the presence of pneumonia, inhalation injury, increased burn size, and advanced age were all associated with increased mortality (P< 0.001). In the late onset pneumonia, other associated factors also contributed to mortality. Severity of disease, severity of illness (APACHE score), organ failure, underlying co-morbidities, and VAP PIRO score all have significant correlations with mortality rate. Pneumonia was an important factor for predicting burn patient mortality. Early detection and management of pneumonia are absolutely essential.The Annals of Fires and Burn Disaster 09/2013; 26(3):126-135.
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ABSTRACT: Long-term trends in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates, and other health care-associated infections, were examined prior to, during, and after introduction of a VAP bundle in a long-term acute care hospital setting. VAP incidence rate declined in a step-wise fashion and reached a null value. Incidence rates of bacteremia from any cause declined in a similar fashion. The incidence rates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection rates also decreased, but that of Clostridium difficile infection did not. VAP in the long-term acute care hospital setting can be controlled over time with implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based VAP bundle. This outcome also may decrease certain other health care-associated infections.American journal of infection control 05/2014; 42(5):536-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2014.01.020 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Initial management of the severely injured routinely includes sedation and mechanical ventilatory support. However, nonjudiciously applied mechanical ventilatory support can itself lead to poorer patient outcomes. In an attempt to reduce this iatrogenic risk, a standardized, in-house, five-point protocol providing clinical guidance on the use and duration of ventilation was introduced and analyzed, and the impact on patient outcomes was assessed. In 2007, a protocol for early spontaneous breathing was introduced and established in clinical practice. This protocol included: 1) early extubation (≤6 hours after admission) in the absence of absolute ventilatory indication; 2) avoidance of "routine intubation" in spontaneously breathing patients; 3) early postoperative extubation, including patients requiring multiple surgical interventions; 4) intensive chest and respiratory physiotherapy with routine application of expectorants; and 5) early active mobilization. A retrospective clinical study compared patients (group A) over a 2-year period admitted under the new protocol with a historical patient group (group B). Patients in group A (n = 38) had fewer ventilator days over the time-course of treatment (3 [1; 5.8] vs 18.5 days [0.5; 20.5]; P = .0001) with a lower rate of tracheostomies (15.8 vs 54%; P = .0003). Patients on ventilation at admission in group A had shorter ventilation periods after admission (4.75 [4; 22.25] vs 378 hours [8.5; 681.5]; P = .0003), and 66.7% of these patients were extubated within 6 hours of admission (vs 9.1% in group B). No patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria required re- or emergency intubation. In the first 5 days of treatment, significantly lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were recorded in group A. There was also a trend for lower mortality rates (0 [0%] vs 6 [14%]), sepsis rates (24 [63.2%] vs 37 [88.1%]), and cumulative fluid balance on days 3 and 7 in group A. In contrast, group A demonstrated an elevated rate of pneumonia (15 [39.5%] vs 8 [19%]). These trends, however, lacked statistical significance. Our five-point protocol was safe and easily translated into clinical practice. In the authors experience, this protocol significantly reduced the ventilatory period in severely injured. Furthermore, this study suggests that many injured may be over-treated with routine ventilation, which carries accompanying risks.Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/BCR.0000000000000238 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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