Dependence induced increases in intragastric alcohol consumption in mice.
ABSTRACT Three experiments used the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure to examine the effects of variations in passive ethanol exposure on withdrawal and voluntary ethanol intake in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Experimental treatments were selected to induce quantitative differences in ethanol dependence and withdrawal severity by: (1) varying the periodicity of passive ethanol exposure (three, six or nine infusions/day); (2) varying the dose per infusion (low, medium or high); and (3) varying the duration of passive exposure (3, 5 or 10 days). All experiments included control groups passively exposed to water. B6 mice generally self-infused more ethanol than D2 mice, but passive ethanol exposure increased IGAC in both strains, with D2 mice showing larger relative increases during the first few days of ethanol access. Bout data supported the characterization of B6 mice as sippers and D2 mice as gulpers. Three larger infusions per day produced a stronger effect on IGAC than six or nine smaller infusions, especially in D2 mice. Increased IGAC was strongly predicted by cumulative ethanol dose and intoxication during passive exposure in both strains. Withdrawal during the passive exposure phase was also a strong predictor of increased IGAC in D2 mice. However, B6 mice showed little withdrawal, precluding analysis of its potential role. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that dependence-induced increases in IGAC are jointly determined by two processes that might vary across genotypes: (1) tolerance to aversive postabsorptive ethanol effects and (2) negative reinforcement (i.e. alleviation of withdrawal by self-administered ethanol).
Article: Effects of chronic ethanol exposure on oral self-administration of ethanol or saccharin by Wistar rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The study of alcohol abuse traditionally has placed great emphasis on the development of tolerance and dependence as key factors. However, animal models of ethanol self-administration in dependent rats have been difficult to establish, caused in part by ethanol's aversive taste cues and subsequent aversive effects (i.e., "hangover" malaise) that prevent substantial ethanol consumption. In this study, this problem was addressed in animals trained to self-administer ethanol (10% w/v) in a sweetened-solution fading procedure before induction of dependence and repeated exposure to withdrawal. Once stable rates of responding for ethanol were achieved, a palatable liquid diet containing 8.7% (v/v) ethanol was introduced as the sole source of calories and fluid for one group of rats [ethanol diet (ED) group]. A second group of rats received a control diet with sucrose isocalorically substituted for ethanol (CD group). After 14-17 days of liquid diet exposure, the rats were withdrawn once a week for 4 weeks and 8 hr into each withdrawal session were allowed to self-administer ethanol or water for 60 min. As compared with CD rats, ED rats showed significantly greater intake of ethanol, but not water. No significant differences were found when separate groups of ED/CD rats were allowed to self-administer an alternate reinforcer (0.0075% saccharin solution). Rats who consistently had blood alcohol levels (BALs) above 100 mg% at the time of withdrawal sustained high levels of ethanol self-administration throughout the four withdrawal sessions. In contrast, rats who had an average BAL at withdrawal below 100 mg% showed progressive decreases in ethanol self-administration during repeated withdrawal episodes. The results demonstrated that chronic exposure to ethanol and repeated periods of abstinence are accompanied by elevated rates of ethanol intake in certain animals, and the persistence of elevated self-administration behavior of individual rats is predicted by their BAL at the time of withdrawal.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/1996; 20(1):164-71. · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic analysis of rapid tolerance to ethanol's incoordinating effects in mice: inbred strains and artificial selection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ethanol tolerance, a decrease in drug responsiveness with repeated administrations, is an important diagnostic criterion for alcoholism. Rapid tolerance develops within 8-24 hours of an initial ethanol exposure and shares many similarities with chronic tolerance. The genetic contribution to rapid tolerance to ethanol-induced ataxia was estimated using a panel of inbred strains of mice. Strains differed significantly in the degree of rapid tolerance development, which had a broad-sense heritability estimate of 0.11. Artificial selection was carried out to develop lines of mice that would show High (HRT) and Low (LRT) levels of Rapid Tolerance. Starting with HS/Npt mice, derived from a systematic cross of eight inbred strains, a significant response to selection was seen in replicate 1 by the third selection generation. No difference was found in replicate 2. Heritability estimates after the fourth generation were 0.25 for HRT-1 mice and 0.06 for LRT-1 mice. HRT-1 and LRT-1 mice also differed significantly in chronic tolerance development to four doses of ethanol. These studies provide evidence for a genetic contribution to rapid tolerance and support a genetic link between rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol's ataxic effects.Behavior Genetics 08/2004; 34(4):441-51. · 2.52 Impact Factor