Natural history of older adults with impaired kidney function: the InCHIANTI study.

Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.
Rejuvenation Research (Impact Factor: 2.92). 09/2011; 14(5):513-23. DOI: 10.1089/rej.2011.1179
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the kidney function of an older community-dwelling population at baseline and appraise its evolution after 3 years of follow-up in terms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage progression, magnitude of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) changes, and value of serum creatinine. This was a prospective population-based study of 676 Italian participants, aged 65 years and older. GFR was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. A total of 33% of participants had criteria of CKD (GFR < 60 mL/min) at baseline; among them, the majority remained stable, 10% improved, and 7% progressed to more severe CKD stages at follow-up. Loss of GFR in participants with GFR < 60 mL/min was significantly lower (1.4 mL/min per year) than in participants with GFR ≥ 60 mL/min (3.3 mL/min per year) at baseline. Most participants classified with CKD stage 2 (GFR 60-89 mL/min) or stage 3 (GFR 30-59 mL/min) at baseline did not change stage, whereas 55% of people with CKD stage 1 (GFR > 90 mL/min) at baseline worsened to stage 2 and 10% worsened to stage 3. An abnormal high level of serum creatinine at baseline did not help to predict who might worsen at follow-up. Older people with CKD displayed a low progression of renal disease and therefore are at higher risk for co-morbidities related to CKD than for progression to end-stage renal disease.

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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To investigate differences in prostate cancer detection rates according to the level of glomerular filtration rates (GFR). Materials and methods: Patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml were analysed. Age, serum creatinine, estimated GFR, body mass index, total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), per cent free PSA (%fPSA), comorbidities, biopsy Gleason sum and per cent positive core were retrospectively reviewed. All parameters were compared to show whether patients with GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (group A) have higher risk of prostate cancer than patients with GFR ≥ 60 (group B). The primary endpoint was cancer detection rate and the secondary endpoints were differences in mean tPSA, fPSA, %fPSA and pathologic outcomes. Results: A total of 1092 men (243 cancer patients) were included. Mean age was 65.8 ± 7.7 years. No differences in mean age and tPSA were found between groups A and B. Mean fPSA, %fPSA and cancer detection rate were significantly higher in group A than group B. The incidence of %fPSA < 25% was significantly lower in group A than in group B. GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) , fPSA and %fPSA < 25% were significant predictors for the presence of prostate cancer in patients with tPSA between 4 and 10 ng/ml. However, %fPSA < 25% was not a significant predictor for group A. Conclusions: Because of the increased cancer detection rates in patients with CKD of stage ≥ 3 whose tPSA levels are 4.0-10.0 ng/ml, performing prostate biopsy should be actively considered in patients with CKD.
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