Activation of OX40 prolongs and exacerbates autoimmune experimental uveitis.

Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.43). 09/2011; 52(11):8520-6. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.11-7664
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT T cells are essential for the development of autoimmune uveitis. Although the costimulatory molecule OX40 promotes T-cell function and expansion, it is unclear whether OX40 is implicated in ocular inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of OX40 in uveitis.
Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) was induced in B10.RIII mice by subcutaneous injection of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein peptide 161-180 (IRBP(161-180)). Some mice received an intravenous administration of OX40-activating antibody on days 0 and 4 after IRBP(161-180) sensitization or on days 10 and 14 of uveitis onset. The severity of EAU was evaluated by histology at different time points. In addition, ocular inflammatory cytokine expression was determined by real time-PCR, and peripheral activated CD4(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) T cells and IL-7Rα expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. The activated CD4(+)CD44(+) lymphocytes were rechallenged with IRBP(161-180) in vitro to assess their antigen recall response.
The authors demonstrated a marked OX40 expression by infiltrating lymphocytes in enucleated human eyes with end-stage inflammation. In addition, the administration of OX40-activating antibody prolonged and exacerbated the disease course of EAU. Moreover, activation of OX40 not only increased CD4(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) lymphocyte number, it upregulated IL-7Rα expression in the activated T-cell population. Lastly, these cells exhibited a stronger interferon-γ response to IRBP(161-180) restimulation in vitro.
The results reveal a pathogenic role of OX40 in uveitis. Furthermore, the upregulation of IL-7R in CD4(+)CD44(+) lymphocytes suggests that the activation of OX40 promotes the generation or expansion of uveitogenic memory T cells.

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    ABSTRACT: Uveitis is a heterogeneous collection of diseases with polygenic and environmental influences. This heterogeneity presents challenges in trial design and selection of end points. Despite the multitude of causes, therapeutics targeting common inflammatory pathways are effective in treating diverse forms of uveitis. These treatments, including corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents, although often effective, can have untoward side effects, limiting their utility. The search for drugs with equal or improved efficacy that are safe is therefore paramount. A mechanism-based approach is most likely to yield the future breakthroughs in the treatment of uveitis. We review the literature and provide examples of the nuances of immune regulation and dysregulation that can be targeted for therapeutic benefit. As our understanding of the causes of uveitis grows we will learn how to better apply antibodies designed to block interaction between inflammatory cytokines and their receptors. T-lymphocyte activation can be targeted by blocking co-stimulatory pathways or inhibiting major histocompatibility complex protein interactions. Furthermore, intracellular downstream molecules from cytokine or other pathways can be inhibited using small molecule inhibitors, which have the benefit of being orally bioavailable. An emerging field is the lipid-mediated inflammatory and regulatory pathways. Alternatively, anti-inflammatory cytokines can be provided by administering recombinant protein, and intracellular "brakes" of inflammatory pathways can be introduced potentially by gene therapy. Novel approaches of delivering a therapeutic substance include, but are not limited to, the use of small interfering RNA, viral and nonviral gene therapy, and microparticle or viscous gel sustained-release drug-delivery platforms. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
    Ophthalmology 10/2013; · 5.56 Impact Factor

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