Granzyme B: a new crossroad of complement and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT In response to severe tissue trauma, several "molecular danger" sensing and signaling pathways are activated, especially the complement and the apoptosis cascade. Although possible crossroads between both systems have been proposed, little is known about the underlying molecular interactions. In this study a new interaction interface is presented for C3a and C5a generation by the pro-apoptotic factor granzyme B. In vitro incubation of the central human complement components C3 and C5 with the serine protease granzyme B resulted in a concentration-dependent production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. The so generated anaphylatoxin C5a was chemotactic active for isolated human neutrophils. In a translational approach, intracellular granzyme B concentration in leukocytes was determined early after severe tissue trauma. In comparison to healthy volunteers, multiple injured patients (less than one hour after trauma, Injury Severity Score > 18, n = 5) presented a significant increase in granzmye B levels in neutrophils and lymphocytes. Thus, tissue trauma is associated with early activation of both, the complement and apoptosis system. The present data suggest a new form of interaction between the complement and the apoptosis system on the level of granzyme B that is capable to generate C3a and C5a independently of the established complement proteases.
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ABSTRACT: The complement system, a major component of the innate immune system, is becoming increasingly recognised as a key participant in physiology and disease. The awareness that immunological mediators support various aspects of both normal central nervous system (CNS) function and pathology has led to a renaissance of complement research in neuroscience. Various studies have revealed particularly novel findings on the wide-ranging involvement of complement in neural development, synapse elimination and maturation of neural networks, as well as the progression of pathology in a range of chronic neurodegenerative disorders, and more recently, neurotraumatic events, where rapid disruption of neuronal homeostasis potently triggers complement activation. The purpose of this review is to summarise recent findings on complement activation and acquired brain or spinal cord injury, i.e. ischaemic-reperfusion injury or stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI), highlighting the potential for complement-targeted therapeutics to alleviate the devastating consequences of these neurological conditions.Journal of Neuroinflammation 06/2012; 9:137. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell clearance facilitates the removal of aged, damaged, infected or dangerous cells although minimizing perturbation of surrounding tissues, and is a vital process in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Importantly, failure to correctly execute programmed cell death and subsequent corpse clearance is broadly associated with chronic inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Apoptotic cells develop dramatic morphological changes including contraction, membrane blebbing and apoptotic body formation, which were among the first and most readily identifiable features of cellular suicide. However, understanding the purpose of apoptotic cell morphological changes has proven to be elusive, and recent studies have made somewhat surprising, and occasionally opposing, conclusions about the contribution of blebbing to phagocytic clearance and prevention of inflammatory/autoimmune disease. We review the evidence indicating how apoptotic blebs actively promote corpse recognition, uptake, and generation of auto-reactive antibodies.Cell death and differentiation 03/2012; 19(5):735-42. · 8.24 Impact Factor