Morphological and biomechanical remodelling of the hepatic artery in a swine model of portal hypertension.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To obtain the biomechanical and morphological remodelling of hepatic arteries in swine with portal hypertension. METHODS: A number of 20 white pigs was used, of which 14 were subjected to liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PHT) induced by carbon tetrachloride and pentobarbital; the rest were used as the control group. The biomechanical remodelling of the hepatic arteries was measured, namely, the incremental elastic modulus (E (inc)), pressure-strain elastic modulus (E (p)), volume elastic modulus (E (v)), the incremental compliance (C), the opening angle and the stained microstructural components of the vessels. RESULTS: The percentages for the microstructural components and the histologic data significantly changed in the experimental group, three incremental elastic moduli (E (inc), E (p), and E (v)) of the experimental group were significantly larger than those of the control group (P < 0.05); the compliance of hepatic arteries decreased greatly (P < 0.05) too. The opening angle (OA) was considerably larger than that of control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that the morphological and biomechanical properties of swine hepatic arteries have changed significantly during the process of portal hypertension and that from biomechanical aspects, the hepatic arteries have also suffered from extensive remodelling, which in turn deteriorates the existing portal hypertension.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatic arterial blood flow changes inversely in response to altered portal blood flow. The hepatic arterial capacity to buffer portal flow changes was studied over a wide range of portal flow with arterial pressure held steady (the active buffer response) or uncontrolled. The active component of the buffer response led to nearly full dilation of the hepatic artery at low portal flows as shown by inability to dilate further in response to adenosine infusion; at high portal flows the hepatic artery was nearly fully constricted as shown by lack of further constriction to norepinephrine. With pressure uncontrolled, active and passive effects combined to produce an increased compensation with similar efficiency (44% +/- 4%) over the full range of portal blood flows. Thus, although the active component of the hepatic arterial buffer response becomes less efficient at very high and low portal flows, the combination of active and passive effects leads to a larger buffer capacity which is equally efficient over a wide range of portal blood flow changes.Gastroenterology 05/1990; 98(4):1024-8. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR) effectively controls total blood perfusion in normal livers, but little is known about blood flow regulation in cirrhosis. We therefore studied the impact of HABR on blood perfusion of cirrhotic livers in vivo. After 8-wk CCl(4) treatment to induce cirrhosis, 18 anesthetized rats (and 18 noncirrhotic controls) were used to simultaneously assess portal venous and hepatic arterial inflow with miniaturized ultrasonic flow probes. Stepwise hepatic arterial blood flow (HAF) or portal venous blood flow (PVF) reduction was performed. Cirrhotic livers revealed a significantly reduced total hepatic blood flow (12.3 +/- 0.9 ml/min) due to markedly diminished PVF (7.3 +/- 0.8 ml/min) but slightly increased HAF (5.0 +/- 0.6 ml/min) compared with noncirrhotic controls (19.0 +/- 1.6, 15.2 +/- 1.3, and 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml/min). PVF reduction caused a significant HABR, i.e., increase of HAF, in both normal and cirrhotic livers; however, buffer capacity of cirrhotic livers exceeded that of normal livers (P < 0.05) by 1. 7- to 4.5-fold (PVF 80% and 20% of baseline). Persistent PVF reduction for 1, 2, and 6 h demonstrated constant HABR in both groups. Furthermore, HABR could be repetitively provoked, as analyzed by intermittent PVF reduction. HAF reduction did not induce changes of portal flow in either group. Because PVF is reduced in cirrhosis, the maintenance of HAF and the preserved HABR must be considered as a protective effect on overall hepatic circulation, counteracting impaired nutritive blood supply via the portal vein.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 09/2000; 279(2):G454-62. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: No satisfactory effects have been obtained with the use of synthetic blood vessels (diameter <6 mm) as substitutes for human small arteries or veins for the purpose of clinical vascular reconstruction. Therefore, blood vessels of human origin, for example, umbilical cord blood vessels, with their wide availability, still should be considered. However, little information on biomechanical properties of human umbilical cord blood vessels is available. The objective was to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of umbilical cord veins as optional material for small-caliber grafts. This was a nonrandomized, noncontrolled in vitro study. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Medical Biomechanics, Yunyang Medical College. Umbilical cord veins of 20 normal fetuses of spontaneous labor were collected by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taihe Hospital in Shiyan City, Hubei Province. The fetuses aged 37-40 weeks, and the parturients were 20-30 years old. Umbilical cord veins of the 20 fetuses were used and the placental ends were treated as proximal ends while the fetal ends as distal ends. The fetal ends were divided into three segments: proximal, middle, and distal segments. The relationship between pressure of umbilical cord veins segments and the diameters was measured on the biomechanical experiment stand for soft tissues, and then the elastic modulus was calculated. The materials were transversely extracted, refrigerated, and sliced up before HE staining. The geometrical morphology indexes were measured by a computer image analysis system (Leica-Q500IW). The main outcome measures were: incremental elastic modulus (E(inc)), pressure-strain elastic modulus (E(p)), volume elastic modulus (E(v)), diameter, and wall thickness of the veins. E(inc), E(p), and E(v) of umbilical cord veins of proximal, middle, and distal segments increased with the pressure elevated. The three kinds of elastic modulus of proximal segments (E(inc): 26.98 +/- 3.21, E(p): 16.58 +/- 2.12, E(v): 8.31 +/- 2.35) were all lower than those of distal segments (E(inc): 33.20 +/- 4.21, E(p): 119.45 +/- 2.87, E(v): 9.71 +/- 1.32) (F = 95.74-126.52, p < 0.05), and a tendency to increase was shown from proximal segments to distal segments. Media thickness [(0.30 +/- 0.05)] mm, (0.24 +/- 0.03) mm] and the diameters [(3.07 +/- 0.12) mm, (2.30 +/- 0.13) mm] decreased gradually from proximal to distal segments (F = 12.76, p < 0.01). It is feasible to use umbilical cord veins as substitutes for the transplantation of small-caliber arteries in terms of basic biomechanical properties. On vascular grafting, different segments of umbilical cord veins should be chosen cautiously so that the biomechanical characteristics of umbilical cord vein grafts could be in accordance with those of host to increase the long-term patency rate of transplanted blood vessels.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 01/2006; 76(1):93-7. · 2.31 Impact Factor