Case-matched series of enhanced versus standard recovery pathway in minimally invasive colorectal surgery
ABSTRACT Accelerated recovery pathways may reduce length of hospital stay after surgery but there are few data on minimally invasive colorectal operations.
An enhanced recovery pathway (ERP) was instituted, including preoperative analgesia, limited intravenous fluids and opiates, and early feeding. Intrathecal analgesia was administered as needed, but epidural analgesia was not used. The first 66 patients subjected to the ERP were case-matched by surgeon, procedure and age (within 5 years) with patients treated previously in a fast-track pathway (FTP). Short-term and postoperative outcomes to 30 days were compared.
Hospital stay was shorter with the ERP than the FTP: median (interquartile range, i.q.r.) 3 (2-3) versus 3 (3-5) days (P < 0·001). A 2-day hospital stay was achieved in 44 and 8 per cent of patients respectively (P < 0·001). Patients in the ERP had a shorter time to recovery of bowel function: median (i.q.r.) 1 (1-2) versus 2 (2-3) days (P < 0·001). Thirty-day complication rates were similar (32 per cent ERP, 27 per cent FTP; P = 0·570). Readmissions within 30 days were more common with ERP, but the difference was not statistically significant (10 versus 5 patients; P = 0·170). Total hospital stay for those readmitted was shorter in the ERP group (18 versus 23 days).
ERP decreased the length of hospital stay after minimally invasive colorectal surgery.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal surgery is associated with considerable morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Recognizing the need for improvement, we implemented an enhanced recovery (ER) protocol for all patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery at an academic institution. A multidisciplinary team implemented an ER protocol based on: preoperative counseling with active patient participation, carbohydrate loading, multimodal analgesia with avoidance of intravenous opioids, intraoperative goal-directed fluid resuscitation, immediate postoperative feeding, and ambulation. Discharge requirements remained identical throughout. A before and after study design was undertaken comparing patients before (August 2012 to February 2013) and after implementation of an ER protocol (August 2013 to February 2014). Risk stratification was performed using the NSQIP risk calculator to calculate the predicted LOS for each patient based on 23 variables. One hundred and nine consecutive patients underwent surgery within the ER protocol compared with 98 consecutive historical controls (conventional). The risk-adjusted predicted LOS was similar for each group at 5.1 and 5.2 days. Substantial reductions were seen in LOS, morphine equivalents, intravenous fluids, return of bowel function, and overall complications with the ER group. There was a $7,129/patient reduction in direct cost, corresponding to a cost savings of $777,061 in the ER group. Patient satisfaction as measured by Press Ganey improved considerably during the study period. Implementation of an ER protocol led to improved patient satisfaction and substantial reduction in LOS, complication rates, and costs for patients undergoing both open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery. These data demonstrate that small investments in the perioperative environment can lead to large returns. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2015; 220(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.12.042 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The aim of the study was to assess which aspects of an enhanced recovery programme are associated with better outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.MethodsA database of laparoscopic colorectal procedures performed in 2011 was reviewed. Elements of the enhanced recovery programme and compliance were evaluated for short-term (30-day) outcomes. Individual elements included gabapentin, celecoxib, intrathecal analgesia, diet, postoperative fluids, and paracetamol/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug pain management.ResultsFive hundred and forty-one consecutive procedures were included. Compliance with the enhanced recovery programme elements ranged from 82·4 to 99·3 per cent. Median length of hospital stay was 3 (i.q.r. 2–5) days, with 25·9 per cent of patients discharged within 48 h. Patients without complications had a median length of stay of 3 (i.q.r. 2–4) days if compliant and 3 (3–5) days if not (P < 0·001). Low oral opiate intake (oral morphine equivalent of less than 30 mg) (odds ratio (OR) 1·97, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·29 to 3·03; P = 0·002), full compliance (OR 2·36, 1·42 to 3·90; P < 0·001) and high surgeon volume (more than 100 cases per year) (OR 1·50, 1·19 to 1·89; P < 0·001) were associated with discharge within 48 h. Compliance with the elements of oral intake and fluid management in the first 48 h was associated with a reduced rate of complications (8·1 versus 19·6 per cent; P = 0·001). Median oral opiate intake was 37·5 (i.q.r. 0–105) mg in 48 h, with 26·2 per cent of patients receiving no opiates.Conclusion Compliance with an enhanced recovery pathway was associated with less opiate use, fewer complications and a shorter hospital stay.British Journal of Surgery 07/2014; 101(8). DOI:10.1002/bjs.9534 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with deviation in length of hospital stay (LOS) from that determined by diagnosis-related groups. Methods A cohort study from a prospectively collected database was conducted, including consecutive patients undergoing surgery in a high-volume colorectal surgery department in 2009. Results For 1,461 included patients, average expected and actual LOS were 8.17 days (interquartile range, 4.7 to 11.9 days) and 8.31 days (interquartile range, 4 to 10 days), respectively. The most prominent factors associated with an increase of LOS from expected were parenteral nutrition (5.11 days), emergency room admittance (3.67 days), and ileus (3.45 days) (P ≤ .001 for all). Other independently associated factors included blood transfusion, anastomotic leak, sepsis, pulmonary embolism, and surgeon. Patients with higher severity illness indexes and longer postoperative intensive care stay had lower than expected LOS. Conclusions After colorectal surgery, several modifiable factors are associated with deviation of LOS from expected. An opportunity hence exists to reduce both LOS and financial burden for hospitals in an era of pay for performance.The American Journal of Surgery 10/2014; 208(4):663–669. DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2013.06.004 · 2.41 Impact Factor