Natural killer T cells in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis.
ABSTRACT Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system participate in the development of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large arteries. Natural killer T (NKT) cells express surface markers characteristic of natural killer cells and conventional T cells and bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. The development and activation of NKT cells is dependent upon CD1d, a MHC-class I-type molecule that presents lipids, especially glycolipids to the T cell receptors on NKT cells. There are two classes of NKT cells; invariant NKT cells that express a semi-invariant T cell receptor and variant NKT cells. This review summarises studies in murine models in which the effect of the activation, overexpression or deletion of NKT cells or only invariant NKT cells on atherosclerosis has been examined.
- SourceAvailable from: Catherine A Reardon
Article: Animal models of atherosclerosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics, and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to manipulation of the atherogenic process and modeling human atherosclerosis or lipoprotein profile. Useful large animal models include pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates. Due in large part to the relative ease of genetic manipulation and the relatively short time frame for the development of atherosclerosis, murine models are currently the most extensively used. Although not all aspects of murine atherosclerosis are identical to humans, studies using murine models have suggested potential biological processes and interactions that underlie this process. As it becomes clear that different factors may influence different stages of lesion development, the use of mouse models with the ability to turn on or delete proteins or cells in tissue specific and temporal manner will be very valuable.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 03/2012; 32(5):1104-15. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a T cell subpopulation that were named originally based on coexpression of receptors found on natural killer (NK) cells, cells of the innate immune system, and by T lymphocytes. The maturation and activation of NKT cells requires presentation of glycolipid antigens by CD1d, a cell surface protein distantly related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded antigen presenting molecules. This specificity distinguishes NKT cells from most CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that recognize peptides presented by MHC class I and class II molecules. The rapid secretion of a large amount of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines by activated NKT cells endows them with the ability to play a vital role in the host immune defense against various microbial infections. In this review, we summarize progress on identifying the sources of microbe-derived glycolipid antigens recognized by NKT cells and the biochemical basis for their recognition.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/2012; 1253:68-79. · 4.38 Impact Factor