The Food and Drug Administration has completed its review of 4 clinical trials evaluating the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in infants (ages 1 month to <12 months) for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). An Advisory Committee meeting was held in November 2010 to discuss the potential reasons why PPI use in these trials failed to show a benefit in infants with GERD, and directions for future study. The present review summarizes the findings from the clinical trials. Potential mechanisms for the failed clinical trials are discussed. The safety of long-term use is also discussed. As a result of our analysis and review, the authors agree with the Advisory Committee members that PPIs should not be administered to treat the symptoms of GERD in the otherwise healthy infant without the evidence of acid-induced disease.
"This has resulted in widespread inappropriate diagnosis and treatment of gastro-oesphageal reflux disease (GORD), lactose intolerance, and food allergy in crying babies in the first three to four months of life   . Despite the ongoing popularity of these diagnoses, anti-secretory medications have been shown to be no more effective than placebo  , and the mucosal inflammation of acid-peptic or allergic oesophagitis is very rarely demonstrated in crying babies in the first three or four months  . Complicated maternal elimination diets are popular amongst breastfeeding mothers. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although problem crying in the first three to four months of life is usually self-limiting, it is not a trivial condition. Early intervention is important, yet families receive conflicting advice from health professionals. The past decade has seen significant advances in neuroscience, lactation science, and developmental psychology, including new insights into the significance of developmentally sensitive windows. We propose a neurobiological model to explain the mechanisms of cry-fuss problems in the first months of life, and the mechanisms which underlie effective intervention, with a view to facilitating research collaboration and consistency of advice across health disciplines. We hypothesise that crying in the first three to four neurodevelopmentally sensitive months signals activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenergic neuronal circuitry in response to perceptions of discomfort or threat. Susceptible infants may be conditioned by early stress, for example, by unidentified feeding difficulties, into a sensitised stress response, which usually settles at three to four months of age with neurodevelopmental maturity. Bouts of prolonged and unsoothable crying result from positive feedback loops in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and adrenergic systems. Importantly, epigenetic modulation of the infant's limbic neuronal circuitry may explain correlations between regulatory problems in the first months of life, and behavioural problems including feeding problems in later childhood.
Medical Hypotheses 09/2013; 81(5). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2013.09.004 · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively evaluate the effects of oral domperidone on the QTc interval in infants.
Infants (0-1 year) with a diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) disease were included. A 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) was performed in all infants at baseline and 1 h after the intake of domperidone after 7-14 days; the corrected QTc interval was calculated by one investigator (MV) according to Bazett's formula.
Forty-five infants were enrolled in this study. The mean gestational age was of 38.6 weeks (35.5-42.0), and the mean age at the start of domperidone was 75.3 days (19-218 days). No statistically significant difference in corrected QTc was observed between baseline and the second ECG (0.389 ± 0.02 vs. 0.397 ± 0.31; p 0.130)). A trend was observed regarding gender: Although there was no difference in QTc change in girls (p 0.622), there was a strong trend in boys (p 0.051). Two infants (both boys) had a clinically significant QTc prolongation (> 460 msec) without symptoms. The Spearman correlation test showed no relation between the QTc change and age (r: -0.05822; p 0.7284). There was no relation between domperidone dosage and QTc change.
Overall, the group-analysis showed no statistical significant difference in QTc duration induced by domperidone. However, 2/45 (4.4%) infants had a prolonged QTc interval (> 460 msec) induced by domperidone. As a consequence, QTc measurement should be recommended in routine in infants when domperidone is started.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is present in pediatric patients when reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. The present study evaluates the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole in infants ages 1 to 11 months with GERD.
In this multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, treatment-withdrawal study, infants received open-label, weight-adjusted doses of esomeprazole (2.5-10 mg) once daily for 2 weeks. Infants with symptom improvement were randomized to esomeprazole (weight-adjusted doses [2.5-10 mg]) or placebo for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was time to discontinuation owing to symptom worsening based on global assessments by the parent/guardian and physician. Adverse events were recorded.
Of the 98 patients enrolled, 81 (82.7%) experienced symptom improvement determined by physician global assessment (PGA) during open-label esomeprazole treatment; 80 entered the double-blind phase. During this phase, discontinuation rates owing to symptom worsening were 48.8% (20/41) for placebo-treated versus 38.5% (15/39) for esomeprazole-treated patients (hazard ratio 0.69; P = 0.28). Posthoc analysis of infants with symptomatic GERD (ie, no diagnostic procedure performed) revealed that time to discontinuation was significantly longer with esomeprazole than placebo (hazard ratio 0.24; P = 0.01); the complementary subgroup difference was not significant (hazard ratio 1.39; P = 0.48). Esomeprazole was well tolerated.
The discontinuation rate owing to symptom worsening did not differ significantly between infants receiving esomeprazole versus those receiving placebo. Improved diagnostic criteria in this age group are needed to identify infants with GERD who may benefit from acid suppression therapy.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 01/2012; 55(1):14-20. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182496b35 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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