Preparation of synaptoneurosomes from mouse cortex using a discontinuous percoll-sucrose density gradient

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Waisman Center for Developmental Disabilities, University of Wisconsin, USA.
Journal of Visualized Experiments (Impact Factor: 1.33). 09/2011; DOI: 10.3791/3196
Source: PubMed


Synaptoneurosomes (SNs) are obtained after homogenization and fractionation of mouse brain cortex. They are resealed vesicles or isolated terminals that break away from axon terminals when the cortical tissue is homogenized. The SNs retain pre- and postsynaptic characteristics, which makes them useful in the study of synaptic transmission. They retain the molecular machinery used in neuronal signaling and are capable of uptake, storage, and release of neurotransmitters. The production and isolation of active SNs can be problematic using medias like Ficoll, which can be cytotoxic and require extended centrifugation due to high density, and filtration and centrifugation methods, which can result in low activity due to mechanical damage of the SNs. However, the use of discontinuous Percoll-sucrose density gradients to isolate SNs provides a rapid method to produce good yields of translationally active SNs. The Percoll-sucrose gradient method is quick and gentle as it employs isotonic conditions, has fewer and shorter centrifugation spins and avoids centrifugation steps that pellet SNs and cause mechanical damage.

Download full-text


Available from: Cara J Westmark, Jul 24, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The astrocyte brain fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) has previously been shown to have a coordinated diurnal regulation of mRNA and protein throughout mouse brain, and an age-dependent decline in protein expression within synaptoneurosomal fractions. Mechanisms that control time-of-day changes in expression and trafficking Fabp7 to the perisynaptic process are not known. In this study, we confirmed an enrichment of Fabp7 mRNA and protein in the astrocytic perisynaptic compartment, and observed a diurnal change in the intracellular distribution of Fabp7 mRNA in molecular layers of hippocampus. Northern blotting revealed a coordinated time-of-day-dependent oscillation for the Fabp7 mRNA poly(A) tail throughout murine brain. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 1 (CPEB1) regulates subcellular trafficking and translation of synaptic plasticity-related mRNAs. Here we show that Fabp7 mRNA coimmunoprecipitated with CPEB1 from primary mouse astrocyte extracts, and its 3'UTR contains phylogenetically conserved cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) capable of regulating translation of reporter mRNAs during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Given that Fabp7 expression is confined to astrocytes and neural progenitors in adult mouse brain, the synchronized cycling pattern of Fabp7 mRNA is a novel discovery among known CPE-regulated transcripts. These results implicate circadian, sleep, and/or metabolic control of CPEB-mediated subcellular trafficking and localized translation of Fabp7 mRNA in the tripartite synapse of mammalian brain.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 01/2012; 32(4):1383-94. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3228-11.2012 · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The RNA-binding protein fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) has been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), two neurodegenerative disorders that share similar clinical and pathological features. Both missense mutations and overexpression of wild-type FUS protein can be pathogenic in human patients. To study the molecular and cellular basis by which FUS mutations and overexpression cause disease, we generated novel transgenic mice globally expressing low levels of human wild-type protein (FUS(WT)) and a pathological mutation (FUS(R521G)). FUS(WT) and FUS(R521G) mice that develop severe motor deficits also show neuroinflammation, denervated neuromuscular junctions, and premature death, phenocopying the human diseases. A portion of FUS(R521G) mice escape early lethality; these escapers have modest motor impairments and altered sociability, which correspond with a reduction of dendritic arbors and mature spines. Remarkably, only FUS(R521G) mice show dendritic defects; FUS(WT) mice do not. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors 1/5 in neocortical slices and isolated synaptoneurosomes increases endogenous mouse FUS and FUS(WT) protein levels but decreases the FUS(R521G) protein, providing a potential biochemical basis for the dendritic spine differences between FUS(WT) and FUS(R521G) mice.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; 111(44). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1406162111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is associated with the accumulation within the brain of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that damage synapses and affect memory acquisition. This process can be modelled by observing the effects of Aβ on synapses in cultured neurons. The addition of picomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ derived from brain extracts triggered the loss of synaptic proteins including synaptophysin, synapsin-1 and cysteine string protein from cultured neurons. Glimepiride, a sulphonylurea used for the treatment of diabetes, protected neurons against synapse damage induced by Aβ. The protective effects of glimepiride were multi-faceted. Glimepiride treatment was associated with altered synaptic membranes including the loss of specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins including the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) that acts as a receptor for Aβ42, increased synaptic gangliosides and altered cell signalling. More specifically, glimepiride reduced the Aβ-induced increase in cholesterol and the Aβ-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in synapses that occurred within cholesterol-dense membrane rafts. Aβ42 binding to glimepiride-treated neurons was not targeted to membrane rafts and less Aβ42 accumulated within synapses. These studies indicate that glimepiride modified the membrane micro-environments in which Aβ-induced signalling leads to synapse damage. In addition, soluble PrP(C), released from neurons by glimepiride, neutralised Aβ-induced synapse damage. Such observations raise the possibility that glimepiride may reduce synapse damage and hence delay the progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
    Neuropharmacology 10/2015; 101. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.09.030 · 5.11 Impact Factor