[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ser/Thr protein kinase PKB/Akt is a key regulator of a wide range of cellular processes including growth, proliferation and survival. PKB is clearly a crucial signaling molecule and extensive research efforts aim to understand its regulation and action. Recent studies of the regulation of PKB activity by hydrophobic motif phosphorylation have yielded several exciting findings about members of the PI3-kinase-like family of kinases (PIKKs) acting as PKB regulators. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) can both phosphorylate Ser473 and activate PKB. This present review concerns PKB regulation by mTORC2 and DNA-PK in a stimulus-dependent and context-dependent manner and the possible implications of this for PKB activity, substrate specificity and therapeutic intervention.
Current opinion in cell biology 04/2009; 21(2):256-61. DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2009.02.002 · 8.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair protein DNA-PKcs and the signal transducer ATM are both activated by DNA breaks and phosphorylate similar substrates in vitro, yet appear to have distinct functions in vivo. Here, we show that ATM and DNA-PKcs have overlapping functions in lymphocytes. Ablation of both kinase activities in cells undergoing immunoglobulin class switch recombination leads to a compound defect in switching and a synergistic increase in chromosomal fragmentation, DNA insertions, and translocations due to aberrant processing of DSBs. These abnormalities are attributed to a compound deficiency in phosphorylation of key proteins required for DNA repair, class switching, and cell death. Notably, both kinases are required for normal levels of p53 phosphorylation in B and T cells and p53-dependent apoptosis. Our experiments reveal a DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway that regulates DNA repair and activation of p53 in the absence of ATM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Damage to our genetic material is an ongoing threat to both our ability to faithfully transmit genetic information to our offspring as well as our own survival. To respond to these threats, eukaryotes have evolved the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR is a complex signal transduction pathway that has the ability to sense DNA damage and transduce this information to the cell to influence cellular responses to DNA damage. Cells possess an arsenal of enzymatic tools capable of remodeling and repairing DNA; however, their activities must be tightly regulated in a temporal, spatial, and DNA lesion-appropriate fashion to optimize repair and prevent unnecessary and potentially deleterious alterations in the structure of DNA during normal cellular processes. This review will focus on how the DDR controls DNA repair and the phenotypic consequences of defects in these critical regulatory functions in mammals.
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