Health-related physical fitness is associated with selected sociodemographic and behavioral factors in Brazilian school children.
ABSTRACT This study investigated the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors and health standards based on physical fitness component scores in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren.
A sample of 1457 girls and 1392 boys aged 6 to 18 years performed a test battery of 5 items: 1) sit-and-reach, 2) curl-up, 3) trunk-lift, 4) push-up, and 5) progressive endurance run (PACER). The cut-off scores for gender and age suggested by the FitnessGram were adopted.
The findings showed that the sociodemographic and behavioral factors significantly associated with the ability of schoolchildren of meeting the health standards varied according to the fitness test. In the 5 tests used girls presented lower chance of meeting the health standards. Age and socioeconomic class were negatively associated with the performance in all physical tests. Schoolchildren aged ≤ 9 years or from families of lowest socioeconomic class presented approximately twice the chance of meeting the health standards than those aged ≥ 15 years and from more privileged families, specifically in the push-up (OR = 2.40; 95% CI 2.01-2.82) and PACER (OR = 2.18; 95% CI 1.84-2.54) tests.
Interventions to promote health-related physical fitness should not only consider gender and age of schoolchildren, but also selected sociodemographic and behavioral factors, especially socioeconomic class and leisure activities.
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the association of childhood physical activity and physical fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in adulthood. Furthermore, interpretation of these findings is hampered by methodologic shortcomings. In a population-based cohort study, we explored the influence, if any, of childhood physical activity and physical fitness on later cardiovascular disease risk factors. Data were taken from the Oslo Youth Study, a prospective cohort study that began in 1979, when 1016 students (mean age: 13 years; range: 11-15 years) who were attending 6 schools were invited to participate in a health education intervention. Cardiovascular disease risk factor data were collected at baseline and again in 1981 (mean age: 15 years; range: 13-17 years), 1991 (mean age: 25; range: 23-27 years), 1999 (mean age: 33; range: 31-35 years), and 2006 (mean age: 40; range: 38-42 years). At baseline, physical fitness was inversely related to BMI, triceps skinfold thickness, and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic; N = 716). These associations were also present in prospective analyses at ages 15 (N = 472), 25 (N = 280; except for systolic blood pressure), and 33 years (N = 410, only BMI measured)-albeit with progressively diminishing magnitude-but were lost at 40 years (N = 294). There were fewer relationships with cardiovascular disease risk factors when physical activity was the exposure of interest. Controlling for educational attainment of both the parent and the study member had little impact on these associations. Although childhood physical fitness seems to reveal some inverse associations with obesity and blood pressure in early adulthood, these effects diminished markedly into middle age.PEDIATRICS 02/2009; 123(1):e80-6. · 4.47 Impact Factor
- Research quarterly for exercise and sport 03/1998; 69(1):89-93. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46% from low socioeconomic groups and 54% from moderate or high socioeconomic groups (n = 1314, age = 16.2 +/- 0.9) participated in this study. A 15-question survey instrument assessed barriers to exercise and activity level. The FITNESSGRAM fitness test assessed aerobic capacity and body mass index (BMI), and skinfold calipers were used to assess percent body fat. Significant differences between African Americans, Hispanics, and whites were found on the following dependent variables: BMI, percent fat, mile run, perceived barriers to exercise, and activity level. Significant differences between socioeconomic groups were found on the following dependent variables: percent fat, mile run, activity level, and perceived barriers to exercise. These results suggest that students of minority and low socioeconomic groups should be given separate and different interventions regarding health-related fitness.Journal of School Health 02/2006; 76(1):12-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor