Sildenafil improves the beneficial hemodynamic effects exerted by atorvastatin during acute pulmonary thromboembolism.
ABSTRACT We investigated whether atorvastatin has beneficial hemodynamic effects during acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT) and whether sildenafil improves these effects. We studied the involvement of oxidative stress, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and neutrophil activation. APT was induced with autologous blood clots (500 mg/kg) in anesthetized male lambs pretreated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously; 1 week) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide 10% subcutaneously). Sildenafil (0.7 mg/kg intravenously) or saline infusions were performed 60 min after APT induction. Non-embolized control animals received saline. APT significantly increased pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) by approximately 310% and 258% respectively. While atorvastatin pretreatment attenuated these increases (~150% and 153%, respectively; P < 0.05), its combination with sildenafil was associated with lower increases in PVRI and MPAP (~32% and 36%, respectively). Gelatin zymography showed increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage, and increased MMP-9 levels in plasma from embolized animals. Atorvastatin pretreatment attenuated bronchoalveolar lavage MMP-2 increases. The combination of drugs blunted the MMPs increases in bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma (P < 0.05). Neutrophils accumulated in bronchoalveolar lavage after APT, and atorvastatin pretreatment combined with sildenafil (but not atorvastatin alone) attenuated this effect (P < 0.05). APT increased lung lipid peroxidation and total protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage, thus indicating oxidative stress and alveolar-capillary barrier damage, respectively. Both increases were attenuated by atorvastatin pretreatment alone or combined with sildenafil (P < 0.05). We conclude that pretreatment with atorvastatin protects against the pulmonary hypertension associated with APT and that sildenafil improves this response. These findings may reflect antioxidant effects and inhibited neutrophils/MMPs activation.
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ABSTRACT: Growing evidence supports the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Particularly, imbalanced MMP-2 activity apparently plays a critical role in cardiovascular remodelling. While some studies have suggested that MMP-2 may affect the vascular tone and impair β-adrenoreceptor function, no previous study has examined the acute haemodynamic effects of MMP-2. We examined the effects of recombinant human MMP-2 (rhMMP-2) administered intravenously to anaesthetized lambs at baseline conditions and during β(1) -adrenergic cardiac stimulation with dobutamine. We used 26 anaesthetized male lambs in two study protocols. First, rhMMP-2 (220 ng/kg/min. over 60 min.) or vehicle was infused in the lambs, and no significant haemodynamic changes were found. Therefore, we infused dobutamine at 5 μg/kg/min. i.v. (or saline) over 180 min. in lambs that had received the same rhMMP-2 infusion preceded by doxycycline i.v. at 10 mg/kg (or saline). Plasma and cardiac MMP-2 levels were assessed by gelatin zymography, and gelatinolytic activity was assessed by spectrofluorimetry. Dobutamine decreased systemic vascular resistance index, and this effect was attenuated by rhMMP-2 infusion. Moreover, dobutamine increased the cardiac index and left ventricular dP/dt(max) , and these effects were attenuated by rhMMP-2. The previous administration of doxycycline blunted rhMMP-2-induced changes in dobutamine responses. While the infusion of rhMMP-2 did not increase plasma and cardiac MMP-2 levels, it increased cardiac gelatinolytic activity, and doxycycline blunted this effect. Our findings show that rhMMP-2 exerts no major haemodynamic effects in lambs. However, rhMMP-2 impairs the responses elicited by activation of β-adrenoreceptors.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 08/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor
Article: Fiddler on the RoofOR Insight 01/2000; 13(3):9-14.
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ABSTRACT: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a multifactorial disease associated with vascular dysfunction, low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and oxidative stress. However, it is not known whether low NO bioavailability and oxidative stress affect the responsiveness of ED patients to sildenafil. We tested this hypothesis by studying 28 healthy subjects (control group), 26 patients with ED without comorbidities (ED group), and 18 patients with ED and diabetes mellitus (ED/DM group). The International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was used to assess the erectile function of all participants, and their responsiveness to sildenafil was assessed as the percentage of change in the five-item version of IIEF score before and after sildenafil treatment. Levels of whole blood nitrite, antioxidants markers (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduced glutathione), and oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and protein carbonyl) were determined. We found a negative correlation between whole blood nitrite levels and the responses to sildenafil in both ED groups (P < 0.05). FRAP correlated negatively with the responses to sildenafil in the ED/DM group (P < 0.05). No other significant associations were found. Our findings show evidence that low NO bioavailability is associated with better responses to sildenafil in patients with ED (with or without DM).Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor