Risk factors for local spread of foot-and-mouth disease, 2010 epidemic in Japan.
ABSTRACT To provide a basis for effective foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevention measures, factors associated with local spread were investigated in this study using data of the 2010 FMD epidemic in Japan. Thirty-eight local clusters within a 500-m radius from source farms were selected. In the clusters with pig source farms, more neighboring farms were infected in a short time compared with the clusters with cattle source farms. The influence of distance and wind upon local spread did not show a significant difference between infected and noninfected neighboring farms. Large-size pig farms posed a greater risk of inducing local spread; the odds ratio with reference to small-size cattle farms was 16.73. Middle-size and large-size cattle farms had a greater risk of infection; odds ratios with reference to small-size cattle farms were 15.65 and 25.52, respectively. The present results are useful for understanding features of local spread and prioritizing farms for control measures.