Social-environmental factors related to prenatal smoking

Department of Community Health and Health Behavior, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, USA.
Addictive behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.44). 09/2011; 37(1):73-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.09.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health issue that has profound effects on maternal and fetal health. Although many women stop smoking upon pregnancy recognition, a large number continue. Given the higher burden of smoking among low-income women, the focus of this study is to examine the impact of pre-conception social-environmental influences on smoking cessation during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Pregnant women who presented for prenatal were asked to complete a screening form at their first prenatal appointment. Women who agreed to participate were scheduled for a total of four interviews; a prenatal interview at the end of each trimester and a postnatal interview at 2 months of infant age. The sample for the current report consisted of pregnant women (first trimester) with a partner (N=316).
After controlling for pre-conception heaviness of smoking, a number of social-environmental factors were associated with smoking during the first trimester. Women were more likely to smoke during the first trimester if their partner was a smoker; however, the presence of other household smokers was not associated with increased risk for smoking. Additionally, women with a greater proportion of friends (but not relatives) who smoked and more frequent exposure to environmental tobacco were more likely to smoke.
This work found differential impacts of the social network on smoking suggesting that understanding relationship type, not simply number of smokers, may be important for smoking cessation efforts. Understanding differences in social network influences on smoking can help to inform interventions.

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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n = 101) or quit smoking (n = 254), and a sample of women who continued (n = 110) or quit alcohol consumption (n = 1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p < 0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.
    Addictive behaviors 05/2014; 39(5). DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.01.022 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Smoking during pregnancy and a lack of social support have been identified as independent risk factors for poor birth outcomes. However, the influence of social support on smoking during pregnancy remains underinvestigated. This study examined the association between domains of social support and smoking during pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women during their first trimester, attending three inner-city clinics were surveyed using self-administered questionnaires (N=227). Social support was measured using the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). Three domains of social support (tangible, appraisal, and belonging) were examined. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted; Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Per unit increase in the total composite social support scale, there was a 6% increased odds of smoking during pregnancy. There was a statistically significant interaction between race and social support. While the tangible support ((OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27) and appraisal (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.31) domains were significantly associated with smoking among African American women, only the belonging support domain was significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy among Caucasian women (OR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.40). Conclusions: This study provided evidence that racial differences may exist in the way social support influences smoking during pregnancy. Future studies are needed to understand these racial differences and assist in the design of interventions. Considering the importance of social support, strategies for smoking cessation intervention should consider racial difference.

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Jun 5, 2014