Fathers' sense of security during the first postnatal week-A qualitative interview study in Sweden

Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, PO Box 157, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: .
Midwifery (Impact Factor: 1.71). 09/2011; 28(5):e697-704. DOI: 10.1016/j.midw.2011.08.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT father's sense of security in the early postnatal period is important for the whole family. An instrument, which measures Parents' Postnatal Sense of Security (the PPSS instrument), is under development.
to explore and describe factors, which influence fathers' sense of security during the first postnatal week.
an explorative design with a qualitative approach was used. Thirteen fathers from three hospital uptake areas in Southern Sweden were interviewed using focus group discussions and individual interviews. Analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis.
participation in the processes of pregnancy birth and early parenthood emerged as the main category for fathers' postnatal sense of security. The emergent categories were; 'willingness to participate and take responsibility', 'being given the opportunity to take responsibility', 'being assured about mother's and baby's well-being', 'having someone to turn to-knowing who to ask', 'being met as an individual' and 'being met by competent and supporting staff'.
new and specific items of importance when investigating fathers' sense of security during the early postnatal period have been pinpointed. Fathers' sense of early postnatal security may be enhanced by giving them a genuine opportunity to participate in the whole process and by giving them the opportunity to stay overnight at the hospital after the birth. Midwives and care organisations need to give clear information about where competent help and advice can be obtained at all hours. Midwives should strengthen the fathering role by acknowledging and listening to the father as an individual person.

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Available from: Eva Persson, Jul 31, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Approximately 10% - 15% of mothers and 10% of fathers suffer from depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Both maternal and paternal postnatal depression impact adversely on the family and the child’s behavioural development. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used instrument for the measurement of risk for postnatal depression and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-state) instrument is well established as a measurement of present anxiety. The recently-developed Parent’s Postnatal Sense of Security (PPSS) instrument measures parents’ security in the early postnatal period. Aim: The aims of this paper were to determine the levels of correlation between scores on the PPSS, the EPDS and the STAIstate instruments and to test concurrent validity between the EPDS and STAI-state instruments. Methods: A questionnaire study which included socio-demographic questions, the EPDS, the STAI-state and the PPSS instruments was sent out to 160 mothers and 160 fathers. A total of 71% of the mothers and 63% of the fathers answered the questionnaires. Correlation tests (Spearman) were used to examine relationships between answers to the three questionnaires. Results: Significant correlations were shown between the PPSS, the EPDS and the STAI-state for both mothers and fathers. A significant correlation between the EPDS and the STAI-state instrument for both mothers and fathers indicated substantial concurrent validity. Conclusions and implications: A correlation between parents’ postnatal sense of security, risk for postnatal anxiety and depression were indicated in this study. The PPSS instrument may be used to give an early indication of those at risk for postnatal distress, anxiety and depressive illness. Keywords Anxiety; EPDS; PPSS; Postnatal depression; Preparation for parenthood; Sense of security; STAI-state
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMO Enquadramento: O período pós ‑natal é uma fase essencial no processo de transição para uma parentalidade autónoma. A autonomia está associada à segurança parental, para a qual contribui o apoio fornecido pelos profissio‑ nais de enfermagem. Objetivo: traduzir e adaptar dois instrumentos que permitem avaliar a perceção de segurança da mãe e do pai, na primeira semana após o nas‑ cimento. Método: trata ‑se de um estudo metodológico, ao analisar a fidelidade e validade de instrumentos. A amostra foi constituída por 96 mães e 96 pais na primeira semana após o nascimento. Resultados: Os resultados da análise exploratória com rotação varimax mostram uma versão paterna com uma estrutura conceptual semelhante ao original. Apesar da versão materna incluir menos um item do que a versão original, aproxima-se da sua estrutura concetual, quando sujeita a uma análise exploratória forçada a 4 fatores. Os valores de consistência interna obtidos pelo alfa de Cronbach situam ‑se entre 0,67 e os 0,89 nas versões materna e paterna. Conclusões: O estudo revelou que o PPSS, versão materna e versão pa‑ terna, são instrumentos válidos e fiáveis, sendo necessário reforçar o pro‑ cesso de validação em estudos posteriores. A sua utilização na prática poderá potenciar uma transição para uma parentalidade autónoma e segura. ABSTRACT Background: the early postpartum period is an important step in the transition process to an independent parenting. The autonomy is linked to parental security, for which the support provided by nursing professionals is essential. Aim: to translate and to adapt two instruments for assessing the sense of security of both parents in the first week after childbirth. Methodology: The research has a methodological design to study the re‑ liability and validity of two instruments. The sample was composed by 96 mothers and 96 fathers in the first week after childbirth. Results: The results of exploratory factor analysis, with varimax rotation, in the paternal version, present a conceptual framework similar to the original. Although the maternal version included one less item than the original version, it is approximated to the original conceptual structure when subjected to an exploratory analysis forced to 4 factors. The values obtained for internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha lie between 0.67 and 0.89 on the maternal and paternal versions. Conclusions: The study revealed that the PPSS instrument, whether in the maternal or paternal version, is valid and reliable, being necessary to strengthen the process of validation in further studies. Its use in practice may promote a transition to an autonomous and safe parenthood.
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