Disease-a-month: DM (Impact Factor: 0.54). 09/2011; 57(9):490-510. DOI: 10.1016/j.disamonth.2011.05.005
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis is the most common, multi component joint disease mainly characterized by destruction of articular cartilage which leads up to subchondral bone. Current treatment by NSAID's gives only symptomatic relief but semi-synthetic anthraquinone diacerein is novel chondroprotective agent intended for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Its active metabolite rhein inhibits the agents responsible for cartilage degradation. In the present study, stearic acid, long chain fatty acids, based solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared with enhanced oral bioavailability and lesser side effects. Diacerein loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by modified high shear homogenization with ultrasonication method using stearic acid as lipid. Pluronic F68 and soya lecithin was used as surfactant. Citric acid was added to give acidic environment to drug. Solid lipid nanoparticles were evaluated for different characterization parameters, in-vitro performance and in-vivo pharmacokinetics and anti-diarrhoeal study. Particle size of the diacerein loaded SLN was found in the range of 270 ± 2.1 to 510 ± 2.8 nm with zeta potential -13.78 ± 3.4 mV to -19.66 ± 2.1 mV. Maximum entrapment efficiency was achieved up to 88.1 ± 1.3%. Surface and solid state characterization by TEM, XRD and DSC revealed that all particles are spherical in shape and drug entrapped inside lipid was in amorphous state. In-vitro release was done by dialysis bag method in phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) which showed controlled and extended release profile up to 12 hr. In-vivo pharmacokinetic study reveals an increase in Area Under Curve from 26.68 ± 1.63 to 71.25 ± 1.25 hr μ g ml<SUP>-1</SUP>. Further diarrhoeal side effect of diacerein was also found to reduce up to 37% by lipid nanoparticles. These results suggest that diacerein loaded solid lipid nanoparticles can be prepared efficiently with stearic acid and produces controlled and prolonged drug release profile. The oral bioavailability was enhanced by around 2.7 times and with lesser diarrhoeal side effects. These all will leads to overall improvement in patient compliance for the treatment.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 05/2013; 9(5-5):891-900. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2013.1580 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gut homeostasis results from complex neuro-immune interactions aimed at triggering stereotypical and specific programs of coordinated mucosal secretion and powerful motor propulsion. A prominent role in the regulation of this highly integrated network, comprising a variety of immune/inflammatory cells and the enteric nervous system, is played by purinergic mediators. The cells of the digestive tract are literally plunged into a "biological sea" of functionally active nucleotides and nucleosides, which carry out the critical task of driving regulatory interventions on cellular functions through the activation of P1 and P2 receptors. Intensive research efforts are being made to achieve an integrated view of the purinergic system, since it is emerging that the various components of purinergic pathways (i.e., enzymes, transporters, mediators and receptors) are mutually linked entities, deputed to finely modulating the magnitude and the duration of purinergic signaling, and that alterations occurring in this balanced network could be intimately involved in the pathophysiology of several gut disorders. This review article intends to provide a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the purinergic system role in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions, considering these pathways as a whole integrated network, which is capable of finely controlling the levels of bioactive nucleotides and nucleosides in the biophase of their respective receptors. Special attention is paid to the mechanisms through which alterations in the various compartments of the purinergic system could contribute to the pathophysiology of gut disorder, and to the possibility of counteracting such dysfunctions by means of pharmacological interventions on purinergic molecular targets.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.04.002 · 7.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted delivery of antiosteoarthritic drug diacerein to articular tissue could be a major achievement and soluble polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate (ChS) may be a suitable agent for this. Therefore, diacerein loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with ChS (ChS-DC-SLN) were prepared for synergistic effect of these agents to combat multidimensional pathology of osteoarthritis (OA). Prepared formulation were of size range 396 +/- 2.7 nm, showed extended release up to 16 h and increased bioavailability of diacerein by 2.8 times. ChS-DC-SLN were evaluated for their effect on histopathology of femoro-tibial joint of rat knee and amount of ChS and rhein (an active metabolite of diacerein) at targeted site. Concentration of rhein was significantly higher in case of ChS-DC-SLN (7.8 +/- 1.23 mu g/ml) than that of drug dispersion (2.9 +/- 0.45 mu g/ml). It can be stated that ChS served as homing to articular cartilage for targeting of drug. Thus, ChS-DC-SLN have great potential to enhance the overall efficacy of treatment for OA. From the Clinical Editor: This study demonstrates the feasibility of targeted delivery of diacerein to articular tissue using soluble polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate as the targeting vector. This approach has the potential to significantly increase anti-arthritic drug concentration in joints without leading to systemic toxicity.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 07/2014; 10(5). DOI:10.1016/j.nano.2014.01.008 · 5.98 Impact Factor