The impact of lymphovascular invasion on lymph node status in patients with breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is not uniformly found or reported in breast cancer tumor reports. We sought to determine the impact of the finding of LVI on various parameters of lymph node status in patients with breast cancer. A chart review was performed of 400 node-positive patients from a cohort of patients in a prospective multicenter national sentinel node registry. The finding of LVI was then correlated to number of positive sentinel nodes, the number of positive nonsentinel nodes, the lymph node ratio, and the size of the largest metastatic deposit. Of the 400 patients, data regarding LVI were missing in 98 (24.5%) cases. Although all of these patients were node-positive, LVI was noted to be present in 155 patients (38.8%) and absent in 147 (36.8%). LVI was found to correlate with more positive sentinel nodes (mean, 1.72 vs 1.35; P < 0.001), more positive nonsentinel nodes (mean, 2.16 vs 0.54; P < 0.001), and a higher lymph node ratio (0.29 vs 0.16; P < 0.001). LVI also correlated with size of largest metastatic deposit (P = 0.002). Although LVI is known to be associated with lymph node status, it is not frequently noted on pathology reports. Given its prognostic value, LVI should be carefully evaluated and reported.
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ABSTRACT: Criteria for the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) are lacking. Some authors advocate treating patients with lymph node (LN) involvement; however, nodal assessment is often inadequate or not performed. This study aimed to identify surrogate criteria based on characteristics of the primary tumour. A total of 58 patients who underwent resection for IHCC between January 2000 and January 2010 at any of three institutions were identified. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Median OS was 23.0 months. Median tumour size was 6.5 cm and the median number of lesions was one. Overall, 16% of patients had positive margins, 38% had perineural invasion (PNI), 40% had lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and 22% had LN involvement. A median of two LNs were removed and a median of zero were positive. Lymph nodes were not sampled in 34% of patients. Lymphovascular and perineural invasion were associated with reduced OS [9.6 months vs. 32.7 months (P= 0.020) and 10.7 months vs. 32.7 months (P= 0.008), respectively]. Lymph node involvement indicated a trend towards reduced OS (10.7 months vs. 30.0 months; P= 0.063). The presence of either LVI or PNI in node-negative patients was associated with a reduction in OS similar to that in node-positive patients (12.1 months vs. 10.7 months; P= 0.541). After accounting for adverse tumour factors, only LVI and PNI remained associated with decreased OS on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 1.60-10.40; P= 0.003). Lymphovascular and perineural invasion are separately associated with a reduction in OS similar to that in patients with LN-positive disease. As nodal dissection is often not performed and the number of nodes retrieved is frequently inadequate, these tumour-specific factors should be considered as criteria for selection for adjuvant chemotherapy.HPB 08/2012; 14(8):514-22. DOI:10.1111/j.1477-2574.2012.00489.x · 2.05 Impact Factor