Reprint of: Temporal trends of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in liver tissue of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Baltic Sea, 1974-2008.
ABSTRACT Temporal trends of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were examined in grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) liver from the Baltic Sea over a period of 35 years (1974-2008). In total, 17 of 43 PFCs were found, including the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (C(4)-C(10) PFSAs), perfluorooctanesulfinate (PFOSi), long chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (C(7)-C(14) PFCAs), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA)), whereas saturated and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylates, shorter chain PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids were not detected. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant compound (9.57-1444 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww)), followed by perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 0.47-109 ng g(-1) ww). C(6)-C(8) PFSAs, PFOSi and C(7)-C(13) PFCAs showed statistically significant increasing concentrations between 1974 and 1997, with a peak in 1997 and then decreased or levelled off (except for C(12) and C(13) PFCAs). FOSA had a different temporal trend with a maximum in 1989 followed by significant decreasing concentrations until 2008. Toxicological implications for grey seals are limited, but the maximal PFOS concentration found in this study was about 40 times lower than the predicted lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC). The statistically significant decreasing concentrations or levelling off for several PFCs in the relative closed marine ecosystem of the Baltic Sea indicate a rapidly responding to reduced emissions to the marine environment. However, the high concentrations of PFOS and continuing increasing concentrations of the longer chain PFCAs (C(12)-C(14)) shows that further work on the reduction of environmental emissions of PFCs are necessary.
Article: Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in Lake Ontario Lake Trout: detailed examination of current status and long-term trends.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl contaminants (PFCs) were determined in Lake Ontario Lake Trout sampled annually between 1997 and 2008 in order to assess how current trends are responding to recent regulatory bans and voluntary phase-outs. We also combined our measurements with those of a previous study to provide an updated assessment of long-term trends. Concentrations of PFCs generally increased from the late 1970s until the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, after which concentrations either remained unchanged (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylates) or declined (perfluorodecanesulfonate (PFDS)). The temporal trends were assessed using three models, quadratic, exponential rise to maximum, and two-segment linear piecewise function, and then evaluated for best fit using Akaike Information Criteria. For PFOS and perfluorocarboxylates, the exponential rise to maximum function had the best fit. This is particularly interesting for PFOS as it suggests that although concentrations in Lake Ontario Lake Trout may have stopped increasing in response to voluntary phase-outs in 2000-2002, declines have yet to be observed. This may be due to continuing input of PFOS from products still in use and/or slow degradation of larger precursor molecules. A power analysis of PFOS suggested that 15 years of data with a within-year sample size of 10 is required to obtain sufficient power (80%) to detect a 5% decreasing trend. However, the length of the monitoring program had a greater influence on the ability to detect a trend compared to within-year sample size. This provides evidence that additional sampling years are required to detect a response to bans and phase-outs, given the variability in the fish data. The lack of observed declines of perfluorocarboxylate residues in fish may be expected as regulations for these compounds were only recently enacted. In contrast to the other compounds, the quadratic model had the best fit for PFDS. The results of this study emphasize the importance of long-term monitoring for assessing the effectiveness of bans and phase-outs on PFCs in the environment.Environmental Science & Technology 05/2012; 46(11):5842-50. · 4.80 Impact Factor