High beverage sugar as well as high animal protein intake at infancy may increase overweight risk at 8 years: A prospective longitudinal pilot study

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.6). 09/2011; 10(1):95. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-95
Source: PubMed


Combined effects of early exposure to beverage sugar and animal protein and later life overweight risk have not been studied.
A prospective longitudinal study was initiated in 2001 with 226 infants between 4 and 13 months of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a 2 day food record. Also information on infant body weight and socio-economic status was obtained at baseline. At 8 year follow-up in 2009, children were surveyed again. Main outcome measure was overweight at 8 years as defined by BMIsds > = +1.0. Also maternal BMI, present dietary intake and physical activity, were obtained by questionnaire and 2-day food record.
At the 8 year follow up, 120 children (53%) were surveyed again. Of those, questionnaires and food records were completed for 63 children, for the other 57 children only weight and height at 8 years was available; 20 out of 120 children (17%) were self-reported overweight at 8 years of age. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI) for overweight at 8 years were 1.10 (1.02, 1.18) for beverage sugar intake per one percent of energy intake and 4.06 (1.50, 11.00) for the highest tertile of animal protein intake at infancy compared to the lowest two tertiles. After adjustment for sex, age, infant weight, breastfed at intake assessment, and socio-economic status, odds ratios were 1.13 (1.03, 1.24) for beverage sugar, and 9.67 (2.56, 36.53) for highest tertile of animal protein intake. In the subgroup with completed questionnaire (n = 63) ORs were also adjusted for current maternal overweight, more than 2 months full breastfeeding, physical activity, and energy intake, but ORs remained significantly associated with overweight at 8 years.
A high intake of sugar containing beverages as well as animal protein in the first year of life may increase the risk of overweight at 8 years. The results of this pilot investigation should be confirmed in a larger cohort.

Download full-text


Available from: Peter J M Weijs, Jan 08, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Assessing the fluid intake level of different populations has, to date, attracted very little interest. The comparison of existing data based on food surveys reveals notable differences between countries and within different surveys in 1 country. Methodological issues seem to account to a large extent for these differences. Recent studies conducted using specifically designed diaries to record fluid and water intake over a 7-day period tend to give more accurate results. These recent studies could potentially lead to the revision of the values of adequate intakes of water in numerous countries.
    Nutrition Today 07/2012; 47(4):S7-S10. DOI:10.1097/NT.0b013e31826264b4
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objetivo: Identificar a relação da ingestão de macronutrientes e a idade da menarca em jovens de Curitiba. Metodologia: Foram avaliadas 400 meninas divididas em dois grupos de acordo com a ingesta de gordura saturada da alimentação. Mensurou-se a estatura e o peso corporal, calculou-se o IMC. A idade da menarca foi obtida por autorrelato. Para avaliar o consumo alimentar das jovens participantes, o questionário de frequência de consumo alimentar (QFCA) foi aplicado. Para análise dos dados foi utilizada a estatística descritiva, o teste t de student e regressão linear stepwise, com nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Diferenças significativas não foram observadas para as variáveis de composição corporal, apenas para a idade da menarca sendo menor no grupo de meninas que ingeriam menos de 10% de ácidos graxos saturados (G2). Foi observada uma maior ingestão pelo grupo das meninas que ingerem mais de 10% de ácidos graxos saturados (G1) nas variáveis calorias consumidas, proteínas, gordura total, colesterol e AGSA. Na regressão linear para a idade da menarca, observou-se o con-sumo de ácido graxo saturado com valores r=0,232 e r 2 =0,05. Conclusão: Dos macronutrientes avaliados, os ácidos graxos saturados apresentaram correlação com a idade da menarca. Palavras-chave: menarca; nutrição do adolescente; ácidos graxos. Abstract Objective: Identify the relationship between macronutrient intake and age at menarche in young girls of Curitiba-PR. Methodology: A total of 400 girls divided into two groups according to the intake of saturated fat diet. Was measured height and weight, and after, calculated BMI. The age of menarche was obtained by self-report. To assess the nu-tritional intake of young participants, the questionnaire frequency of food consumption (FFQ) was applied. For data analysis we used descriptive statistics, Student's t test and stepwise linear regression with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed for body composition variables, only age at menarche was lower in the group of girls who consumed less than 10% of saturated fatty acids (G2). There was a higher intake of protein, total fat, cholesterol and AGSA by the group of girls who eat more than 10% of saturated fatty acids (G1). By linear regression analysis it was found that consumption of saturated fatty acids may influence age of menarche and r=0.232 and r 2 =0.05. Conclusion: Ofthe nutrients studied, the saturated fatty acids presented correlated with age at menarche.
    06/2013; 21(2):135-139. DOI:10.1590/S1414-462X2013000200006
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To summarise evidence on the association between intake of dietary sugars and body weight in adults and children. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. OVID Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and Web of Science (up to December 2011). Eligible studies reported the intake of total sugars, intake of a component of total sugars, or intake of sugar containing foods or beverages; and at least one measure of body fatness. Minimum duration was two weeks for trials and one year for cohort studies. Trials of weight loss or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Study selection, assessment, validity, data extraction, and analysis were undertaken as specified by the Cochrane Collaboration and the GRADE working group. For trials, we pooled data for weight change using inverse variance models with random effects. We pooled cohort study data where possible to estimate effect sizes, expressed as odds ratios for risk of obesity or β coefficients for change in adiposity per unit of intake. 30 of 7895 trials and 38 of 9445 cohort studies were eligible. In trials of adults with ad libitum diets (that is, with no strict control of food intake), reduced intake of dietary sugars was associated with a decrease in body weight (0.80 kg, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 1.21; P<0.001); increased sugars intake was associated with a comparable weight increase (0.75 kg, 0.30 to 1.19; P=0.001). Isoenergetic exchange of dietary sugars with other carbohydrates showed no change in body weight (0.04 kg, -0.04 to 0.13). Trials in children, which involved recommendations to reduce intake of sugar sweetened foods and beverages, had low participant compliance to dietary advice; these trials showed no overall change in body weight. However, in relation to intakes of sugar sweetened beverages after one year follow-up in prospective studies, the odds ratio for being overweight or obese increased was 1.55 (1.32 to 1.82) among groups with the highest intake compared with those with the lowest intake. Despite significant heterogeneity in one meta-analysis and potential bias in some trials, sensitivity analyses showed that the trends were consistent and associations remained after these studies were excluded. Among free living people involving ad libitum diets, intake of free sugars or sugar sweetened beverages is a determinant of body weight. The change in body fatness that occurs with modifying intakes seems to be mediated via changes in energy intakes, since isoenergetic exchange of sugars with other carbohydrates was not associated with weight change.
    BMJ Clinical Research 01/2013; 346:e7492. DOI:10.1136/bmj.e7492 · 14.09 Impact Factor
Show more