Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control the tissue culture response in soybean were detected by using 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two varieties: Kefeng No.1 and Nannong 1138-2. The molecular map consisting of 834 molecular markers using this population covered space 2307.83 cM of the genome throughout 24 linkage groups. The performance of tissue culture in soybean was evaluated by two indices: callus induction frequency (CIF) and somatic embryos initiation frequency (SEIF). They were expressed as the number of explants producing callus/ the number of total explants and the number of explants producing somatic embryos/ the number of total explants, respectively. The RIL lines showed continuous segregation for both indices. With the composite interval mapping (CIM) described in Windows QTL Cartographer Version 2.5, three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for the frequency of callus induction, on chromosomes B2 and D2, accounting for phenotypic variation from 5.84% to 16.60%; four QTLs on chromosome G were detected for the frequency of somatic embryos initiation and explained the phenotypic variation from 7.79% to 14.16%. The information of new QTLs identified in the present study will contribute to genetic improvement of regeneration traits with marker-assisted selection (MAS) in soybean.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red pepper, Capsicum annuum L., has been attracting geneticists' and breeders' attention as one of the important agronomic crops. This study was to integrate 41 SNP markers newly developed from comparative transcriptomes into a previous linkage map, and map 12 agronomic and morphological traits into the integrated map. A total of 39 markers found precise position and were assigned to 13 linkage groups (LGs) as well as the unassigned LGe, leading to total 458 molecular markers present in this genetic map. Linkage mapping was supported by the physical mapping to tomato and potato genomes using BLAST retrieving, revealing at least two-thirds of the markers mapped to the corresponding LGs. A sum of 23 quantitative trait loci from 11 traits was detected using the composite interval mapping algorithm. A consistent interval between a035_1 and a170_1 on LG5 was detected as a main-effect locus among the resistance QTLs to Phytophthora capsici at high-, intermediate- and low-level tests, and interactions between the QTLs for high-level resistance test were found. Considering the epistatic effect, those QTLs could explain up to 98.25% of the phenotype variations of resistance. Moreover, 17 QTLs for another eight traits were found to locate on LG3, 4, and 12 mostly with varying phenotypic contribution. Furthermore, the locus for corolla color was mapped to LG10 as a marker. The integrated map and the QTLs identified would be helpful for current genetics research and crop breeding, especially in the Solanaceae family.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soyasaponins are valuable compounds in certain drugs, industry, food additives and surfactants. Selecting cultivars with higher-soyasaponin content along with agronomic traits is a main goal for many soybean breeders. The aim of the present study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with total soyasaponin content through a F2 population, which was derived from a cross between Ha 91016 (higher soyasaponin content cultivar, 16.8 mg g−1) and N98-9445A (lower soyasaponin content, only 5.7 mg g−1). A genetic linkage map including a total of 162 simple sequence repeat markers was constructed, which covered the total length 2 735.5 cM, and the average distance between markers was 16.96 cM. Two QTLs associated with total soyasaponin content were identified. One, qSAP_1 (located in sat_044-satt102 of linkage group (LG) K), could explain 12.6% of phenotypic variance. The other, qSAP_2, was located between satt368 and sat_413 of LG D1a, which could explain 15.8% of phenotypic variance. It was concluded that the two QTLs would have some potential value for marker-assisted selection for high-soyasaponin content breeding in soybeans.
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Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling callus induction and plant regeneration were identified in the VCS3M-DH population of Brassica rapa. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling callus induction and plant regeneration were identified in the VCS3M-DH population of Brassica rapa. The VCS3M-DH population showed wide and continuous variation in callus induction and shoot regeneration. Significant coefficient correlations were detected between these two parameters. Broad-sense heritability (h (2)) for the two traits was around 0.7, indicating genetic regulation of regeneration ability in this population. In the composite interval mapping analysis, two QTLs for callus induction ability, qCi2 and qCi7, were mapped on chromosome A02 and A07, explaining 28.6 % of phenotypic variation. For plant regeneration, four QTLs, qPr6-1 qPr6-2, qPr7, and qPr9 were identified on chromosome A06, A07, and A09, which in total explained 50.1 % of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, 15 putative candidate genes were found on the interval of the six QTLs, which were related to various plant hormones, MADS-box genes, and serine/threonine related genes. These results provide important information to identify genes related to tissue culture ability in B. rapa.
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