Standardized Diagnostic Criteria for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Early Infancy

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UK.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (Impact Factor: 2.77). 09/2011; 469(12):3451-61. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-011-2066-9
Source: PubMed


Clinicians use various criteria to diagnose developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in early infancy, but the importance of these various criteria for a definite diagnosis is controversial. The lack of uniform, widely agreed-on diagnostic criteria for DDH in patients in this age group may result in a delay in diagnosis of some patients.
Our purpose was to establish a consensus among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons worldwide regarding the most relevant criteria for diagnosis of DDH in infants younger than 9 weeks.
We identified 212 potential criteria relevant for diagnosing DDH in infants by surveying 467 professionals. We used the Delphi technique to reach a consensus regarding the most important criteria. We then sent the survey to 261 orthopaedic surgeons from 34 countries.
The response rate was 75%. Thirty-seven items were identified by surgeons as most relevant to diagnose DDH in patients in this age group. Of these, 10 of 37 (27%) related to patient characteristics and history, 13 of 37 (35%) to clinical examination, 11 of 37 (30%) to ultrasound, and three of 37 (8%) to radiography. A Cronbach alpha of 0.9 for both iterations suggested consensus among the panelists.
We established a consensus regarding the most relevant criteria for the diagnosis of DDH in early infancy and established their relative importance on an international basis. The highest ranked clinical criteria included the Ortolani/Barlow test, asymmetry in abduction of 20° or greater, breech presentation, leg-length discrepancy, and first-degree relative treated for DDH.
Level IV, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Download full-text


Available from: John H Wedge,
1 Follower
41 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography of the hip has gained wide acceptance as reliable method for diagnosing developmental hip dysplasia in infants. This blinded study was conducted to investigate the influence of two linear probes with different frequency on diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. In 206 consecutive newborns, the bony roof angle (α-angle) and cartilage roof angle (β-angle) were assessed by three investigators according to Graf. The hips were measured twice both with a 7.5 MHz and a 12 MHz linear transducer (Sonoline G60S(®) ultrasound system; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Each investigator evaluated his sonograms 6 weeks later. Depending on the mean values for α-angle and β-angle, the hips were classified. Reproducibility of the Graf classification was not found to be influenced. In two of three investigators, we observed significant improvement concerning variation of the β-angle with the 12 MHz probe. The use of high-resolution transmitters may improve diagnostic accuracy in ultrasonography of the newborn's hip.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 05/2012; 38(7):1116-20. DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2012.02.033 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Codivilla in 1901, Hey Groves in 1926, and Colonna in 1932 described similar capsular arthroplasties- wrapping the capsule around the femoral head and reducing into the true acetabulum-to treat completely dislocated hips in children with dysplastic hips. However, these procedures were associated with relatively high rates of necrosis, joint stiffness, and subsequent revision procedures, and with the introduction of THA, the procedure vanished despite some hips with high functional scores over periods of up to 20 years. Dislocated or subluxated hips nonetheless continue to be seen in adolescents and young adults, and survival curves of THA decrease faster for young patients than for patients older than 60 years. Therefore, joint preservation with capsular arthroplasty may be preferable if function can be restored and complication rates reduced. Description of Technique We describe a one-stage procedure performed with a surgical hip dislocation and capsular arthroplasty. Various additional joint preservation procedures included relative neck lengthening for improved motion clearance and head size reduction, roof augmentation, and femoral shortening/derotation for containment and congruency. Methods We retrospectively reviewed nine patients (one male, eight female; age range, 13-25 years) who had such procedures between 1977 and 2010. Function was assessed by the Harris hip score (HHS). Minimum followup was 1 year (median, 2 years; mean, 7.5 years; range, 1- 27 years). Results At latest followup, the mean HHS was 84 (n = 7) (range, 78-94). One patient underwent THA after 27 years. Complications included one deep vein thrombosis and one successfully treated neck fracture.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 06/2012; 470(11):2957-67. DOI:10.1007/s11999-012-2444-y · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Klisic and Pajic summarized the history of early diagnosis and treatment of hip dysplasia when they wrote, Devising the preventive approach to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) required much time.... Despite the 2400-year-old suggestion made by Hippocrates that children's hip dislocations are curable if treatment is started very early, the preventive approach was proposed by Roser only in 1879 [who] described early diagnosis in newborns and performed reduction by abduction... He also advocated early treatment by fixing babies' hips in abduction. However, surgeons did not readily accept these proposals, despite the good results shown by Froelich in 1906 and Le Damany in 1911. In 1927, Putti succeeded in interesting some orthopedic surgeons in the procedure by showing the results of early treatment. But the practical problem remained: ie, how to detect the DDH in patients at an early age. The turning point came in 1935 when pediatrician Ortolani introduced early detection of DDH by “early clinical search” shortly after a child's birth, instructing obstetricians, pediatricians, and midwives to perform the search. Rediscovering the diagnostic “segno della scatto,” ie, reducible displacement, he popularized the prophylactic approach to DDH by early detection and treatment. Fifteen years later, another pediatrician, Palmen, organized systematic screening in nurseries by pediatricians. Since Klisic and Pajic wrote this in 1993, the use of ultrasound, albeit still controversial in some ways, has influenced the treatment and prevention of DDH. Klisic's attempts to universally prevent the disease may still be able to be incorporated into further efforts at disease prevention through education and the systematic trials of hip abduction pillows or braces similar to his wide-diaper diapering technique. The goal of prevention is to eradicate a disease so that it does not present to the physician. For DDH, this goal may be tenable.
    Orthopedic Clinics of North America 07/2012; 43(3):269-79. DOI:10.1016/j.ocl.2012.05.001 · 1.25 Impact Factor
Show more