Beverage consumption among European adolescents in the HELENA study

Department of Nutrition, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997, USA.
European journal of clinical nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.07). 09/2011; 66(2):244-52. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.166
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our objective was to describe the fluid and energy consumption of beverages in a large sample of European adolescents.
We used data from 2741 European adolescents residing in 8 countries participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). We averaged two 24-h recalls, collected using the HELENA-dietary assessment tool. By gender and age subgroup (12.5-14.9 years and 15-17.5 years), we examined per capita and per consumer fluid (milliliters (ml)) and energy (kilojoules (kJ)) intake from beverages and percentage consuming 10 different beverage groups.
Mean beverage consumption was 1611 ml/day in boys and 1316 ml/day in girls. Energy intake from beverages was about 1966 kJ/day and 1289 kJ/day in European boys and girls, respectively, with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, including soft drinks, fruit drinks and powders/concentrates) contributing to daily energy intake more than other groups of beverages. Boys and older adolescents consumed the most amount of per capita total energy from beverages. Among all age and gender subgroups, SSBs, sweetened milk (including chocolate milk and flavored yogurt drinks all with added sugar), low-fat milk and fruit juice provided the highest amount of per capita energy. Water was consumed by the largest percentage of adolescents followed by SSBs, fruit juice and sweetened milk. Among consumers, water provided the greatest fluid intake and sweetened milk accounted for the largest amount of energy intake followed by SSBs. Patterns of energy intake from each beverage varied between countries.
European adolescents consume an average of 1455 ml/day of beverages, with the largest proportion of consumers and the largest fluid amount coming from water. Beverages provide 1609 kJ/day, of which 30.4%, 20.7% and 18.1% comes from SSBs, sweetened milk and fruit juice, respectively.


Available from: Lena Hallström, Apr 01, 2015
1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In recent years, adolescents¿ food habits have become a major source of concern, and substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to influence adolescents to consume more fruit and vegetables and less sweets and soft drink. Particular attention has been devoted to the social gradient in food habits, aiming to reduce dietary inequality. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated trends in teenagers¿ food habits, or investigated how dietary inequalities develop.Methods We used Norwegian cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001, 2005 and 2009. Food habits were identified by students¿ consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar rich soft drink. Socio-economic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe analyses indicated an overall positive trend in food habits among adolescents in Norway. Students were more likely to consume fruit (OR 1.76, CI 1.61-1.92) and vegetables (OR 1.51, CI 1.37-1.66) daily in 2005 as compared to 2001, and were less likely to consume sweets (OR 0.58, CI 0.51-0.66 resp. OR 0.77, CI 0.67-0.90) and soft drink (OR 0.55, CI 0.49-0.62 resp. OR 0.84, CI 0.73-0.96) daily when comparing, respectively, 2005 with 2001 and 2009 with 2005. Across all survey years, students with higher SES were more likely to eat fruit (OR 1.47, CI 1.32-1.65) and vegetables (OR 1.40, CI 1.24-1.58) daily than did students with lower SES. Our analyses indicated that the socio-economic differences were stable in the period 2002 - 2010, with uniform improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption across all SES levels. No significant associations between SES and intake of sweets and sugar-added soft drink were found.Conclusion The study identifies an overall improvement in diet among adolescents over a period characterized by onset of as well as ongoing initiatives targeting young people¿s food habits. However, the observed socio-economic gradient in fruit and vegetable consumption remained unchanged.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 09/2014; 11(1):115. DOI:10.1186/s12966-014-0115-y · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Beverage consumption is becoming more important in current research regarding its possible association with the childhood obesity epidemic. The influence of physical activity on fluid intake has been poorly studied, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may be a reliable marker for this type of assessment. The present study analysed beverage intake related to weight, adjusted by CRF, in children aged 9 to 11 years. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based study was conducted on 373 children, aged 9 to 11 years, from the Cuenca province in Spain. To obtain beverage consumption we averaged two 24-h recalls, collected using the YANA-C assessment tool, validated for HELENA study. CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Results: Fluid intake was 1483.39 mL/day, and energy ascribed to fluids was 16% of total energy intake. Beverages were 40% of total sugar intake from diet. The largest amount of fluid consumed among thinness boys came from fruit juices and milk drinks. Thinner girls consumed more diet drinks and whole milk than their normal and overweight counterparts, after adjusting for age and CRF. Conclusions: Overweight-obese boys consumed less fruit juices and milk drinks and girls ingested less diet drinks and whole milk than their normal-weight counterparts. These results suggest the importance of investigating the hydration habits of children to draw reliable conclusions about the best way to hydrate in different situations to avoid adiposity increases.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 10/2014; 30(n04):818-824. DOI:10.3305/nh.2014.30.4.7666 · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public health authorities should raise awareness of the importance of a healthy and sustainable lifestyle as a foundation of the health of the European population, now and in the future.
    Advances in Nutrition 09/2014; 5(5):615S-623S. DOI:10.3945/an.113.005678 · 3.20 Impact Factor