Human FAD synthase (isoform 2): a component of the machinery that delivers FAD to apo-flavoproteins.
ABSTRACT A soluble form of human FAD synthase (isoform 2; hFADS2) was produced and purified to homogeneity as a recombinant His-tagged protein. The enzyme binds 1 mole of the FAD product very tightly, although noncovalently. Complete release of FAD from the 'as isolated' protein requires extensive denaturation. A 75 : 25 mixture of apo/holoprotein could be prepared by treatment with mild chaotropes, allowing estimatation of the contribution made by bound FAD to the protein stability and evaluatation of whether structural rearrangements may be required for FAD release. Under turnover conditions, the enzyme catalyzes FAD assembly from ATP and FMN and, at a much lower rate, the pyrophosphorolytic hydrolysis of FAD. Several mechanistic features of both reactions were investigated in detail, along with their dependence on environmental conditions (pH, temperature, dependence on metals). Our data indicate that FAD release may represent the rate-limiting step of the whole catalytic cycle and that the process leading to FAD synthesis, and delivery to client apoproteins may be tightly controlled.
Article: Role of Key Residues at the Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN):Adenylyltransferase Catalytic Site of the Bifunctional Riboflavin Kinase/Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) Synthetase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In mammals and in yeast the conversion of Riboflavin (RF) into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is catalysed by the sequential action of two enzymes: an ATP:riboflavin kinase (RFK) and an ATP:FMN adenylyltransferase (FMNAT). However, most prokaryotes depend on a single bifunctional enzyme, FAD synthetase (FADS), which folds into two modules: the C-terminal associated with RFK activity and the N-terminal associated with FMNAT activity. Sequence and structural analysis suggest that the 28-HxGH-31, 123-Gx(D/N)-125 and 161-xxSSTxxR-168 motifs from FADS must be involved in ATP stabilisation for the adenylylation of FMN, as well as in FAD stabilisation for FAD phyrophosphorolysis. Mutants were produced at these motifs in the Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FADS (CaFADS). Their effects on the kinetic parameters of CaFADS activities (RFK, FMNAT and FAD pyrophosphorilase), and on substrates and product binding properties indicate that H28, H31, N125 and S164 contribute to the geometry of the catalytically competent complexes at the FMNAT-module of CaFADS.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(11):14492-517. · 2.60 Impact Factor
Article: Detection of a quaternary organization into dimer of trimers of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FAD synthetase at the single-molecule level and at the in cell level.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biochemical characterization of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes FADS (CaFADS) pointed to certain confusion about the stoichiometry of this bifunctional enzyme involved in the production of FMN and FAD in prokaryotes. Resolution of its crystal structure suggested that it might produce a hexameric ensemble formed by a dimer of trimers. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to direct imaging single CaFADS molecules bound to mica surfaces, while preserving their catalytic properties. AFM allowed solving individual CaFADS monomers, for which it was even possible to distinguish their sub-molecular individual N- and C-terminal modules in the elongated enzyme. Differences between monomers and higher stoichiometries were easily imaged, enabling us to detect formation of oligomeric species induced by ligand binding. The presence of ATP:Mg(2+) particularly induced the appearance of the hexameric assembly whose mean molecular volume resembles the crystallographic dimer of trimers. Finally, the AFM results are confirmed in cross-linking solution, and the presence of such oligomeric CaFADS species detected in cell extracts. All these results are consistent with the formation of a dimer of trimers during the enzyme catalytic cycle that might bear biological relevance.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2013; 1834:665-676. · 4.66 Impact Factor