To investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced changes in osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
Blockade of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was achieved in ST2 murine MSCs via overexpression of the NF-κB inhibitor, IκBα. Osteogenic differentiation was induced in IκBα-overexpressing ST2 cells and normal ST2 cells when these cells were treated with TNF-α at various concentrations. Expression levels of bone marker genes were determined using real time RT-PCR and ALP activity assay. In vitro mineralization was performed to determine long-term exposure to TNF-α on mineral nodule formation. MTT assay was used to determine the changes in cell proliferation/survival.
Levels of Runx2, Osx, OC and ALP were up-regulated in cell cultures treated with TNF-α at lower concentrations, while down-regulated in cell cultures treated with TNF-α at higher concentrations. Blockade of NF-κB signaling reversed the inhibitory effect observed in cell cultures treated with TNF-α at higher concentrations, but showed no effect on cell cultures treated with TNF-α at lower concentrations. In contrast, long-term treatment of TNF-α at all concentrations induced inhibitory effects on in vitro mineral nodule formation. MTT assay showed that TNF-α inhibits proliferation/survival of mesenchymal stem cells when the NF-κB signaling pathway is blocked.
The binding of TNF-α to its receptors results in the activation of multiple signaling pathways, which actively interact with each other to regulate the differentiation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of MSCs.
"Moreover, IL-17A can significantly increased leptin production that inhibits adipogenesis and promotes osteogenesis on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) via JAK/STAT signaling (23). TNF-α can promote osteogenic differentiation through triggering NF-kB and enhancing the expression of BMP2 and RUNX2 (24, 25, 28). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by defective bone repair and excessive destruction and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by increased ectopic bone formation with syndesmophytes. Since TNF-α and IL-17A are involved in both diseases, this study investigated their effects on the osteogenic differentiation of isolated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs).
Differentiation of hMSCs into osteoblasts was induced in the presence or absence of IL-17A and/or TNF-α. Matrix mineralization (MM) was evaluated by alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. mRNA expression was measured by qRT-PCR for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and Runx2, genes associated with osteogenesis, DKK-1, a negative regulator of osteogenesis, Schnurri-3 and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), associated with the cross talk with osteoclasts, and TNF-α receptor type I and TNF-α receptor type II (TNFRII).
TNF-α alone increased both MM and ALP activity. IL-17A alone increased ALP but not MM. Their combination was more potent. TNF-α alone increased BMP2 mRNA expression at 6 and 12 h. These levels decreased in combination with IL-17A at 6 h only. DKK-1 mRNA expression was inhibited by TNF-α and IL-17A either alone or combined. Supporting an imbalance toward osteoblastogenesis, RANKL expression was inhibited by TNF-α and IL-17A. However, TNF-α but not IL-17 alone decreased Runx2 mRNA expression at 6 h. In parallel, TNF-α but not IL-17 alone increased Schnurri-3 expression with a synergistic effect with their combination. This may be related to an increase of TNFRII overexpression.
IL-17 increased the effects of TNF-α on bone matrix formation by hMSCs. However, IL-17 decreased the TNF-α-induced BMP2 inhibition. Synergistic interactions between TNF-α and IL-17 were seen for RANKL inhibition and Schnurri-3 induction. Such increase of Schnurri-3 may in turn activate osteoclasts leading to bone destruction as in RA. Conversely, in the absence of osteoclasts, this could promote ectopic bone formation as in AS.
Frontiers in Immunology 09/2014; 5:425. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00425
"In full contrast with these findings, other murine and human MSC studies have reported that TNF-α can also induce osteogenic differentiation (Table 2). In three in vitro rodent models, low concentrations of TNF-α increased osteogenic differentiation via an up-regulation of Runx2, Osx, OCN, and ALP levels (38, 39). Moreover, four human experimental models indicated a similar osteogenic activity for TNF-α. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an essential role in the regulation of bone homeostasis in several chronic immune and inflammatory joint diseases, where inhibition of TNF has led to significant clinical improvement. However, TNF-activated pathways and mechanisms involved in bone remodeling remain unclear. So far, TNF-α was known as an inhibitor of osteoblast differentiation and an activator of osteoclastogenesis. Recent contradictory findings indicated that TNF-α can also activate osteoblastogenesis. The paradoxical role of TNF-α in bone homeostasis seems to depend on the concentration and the differentiation state of the cell type used as well as on the exposure time. This review aims to summarize the recent contradictory findings on the regulation of bone homeostasis by TNF-α at the isolated cell, whole bone, and whole body levels. In addition, the involvement of TNF-α in the bone remodeling imbalance is observed in inflammatory joint diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, which are associated with bone destruction and ectopic calcified matrix formation, respectively. Both diseases are associated with systemic/vertebral osteoporosis.
Frontiers in Immunology 02/2014; 5:48. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00048
"In summary, TNF-α contributes to periodontal damage by its direct effect on osteoclastogenesis and by amplification of inflammatory immune reactions. Furthermore, in vitro data demonstrate an effect of TNF-α not only on osteoclasts, but also on osteoblasts by inhibiting differentiation and bone nodule formation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease (PD), or periodontitis, is defined as a bacterially induced disease of the tooth-supporting (periodontal) tissues. It is characterized by inflammation and bone loss; therefore understanding how they are linked would help to address the most efficacious therapeutic approach. Bacterial infection is the primary etiology but is not sufficient to induce the disease initiation or progression. Indeed, bacteria-derived factors stimulate a local inflammatory reaction and activation of the innate immune system. The innate response involves the recognition of microbial components by host cells, and this event is mediated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by resident cells and leukocytes. Activation of these cells leads to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and recruitment of phagocytes and lymphocytes. Activation of T and B cells initiates the adaptive immunity with Th1 Th2 Th17 Treg response and antibodies production respectively. In this inflammatory scenario, cytokines involved in bone regulation and maintenance have considerable relevance because tissue destruction is believed to be the consequence of host inflammatory response to the bacterial challenge. In the present review, we summarize host factors including cell populations, cytokines, and mechanisms involved in the destruction of the supporting tissues of the tooth and discuss treatment perspectives based on this knowledge.
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