Dose-specific effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
ABSTRACT To investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced changes in osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
Blockade of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was achieved in ST2 murine MSCs via overexpression of the NF-κB inhibitor, IκBα. Osteogenic differentiation was induced in IκBα-overexpressing ST2 cells and normal ST2 cells when these cells were treated with TNF-α at various concentrations. Expression levels of bone marker genes were determined using real time RT-PCR and ALP activity assay. In vitro mineralization was performed to determine long-term exposure to TNF-α on mineral nodule formation. MTT assay was used to determine the changes in cell proliferation/survival.
Levels of Runx2, Osx, OC and ALP were up-regulated in cell cultures treated with TNF-α at lower concentrations, while down-regulated in cell cultures treated with TNF-α at higher concentrations. Blockade of NF-κB signaling reversed the inhibitory effect observed in cell cultures treated with TNF-α at higher concentrations, but showed no effect on cell cultures treated with TNF-α at lower concentrations. In contrast, long-term treatment of TNF-α at all concentrations induced inhibitory effects on in vitro mineral nodule formation. MTT assay showed that TNF-α inhibits proliferation/survival of mesenchymal stem cells when the NF-κB signaling pathway is blocked.
The binding of TNF-α to its receptors results in the activation of multiple signaling pathways, which actively interact with each other to regulate the differentiation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of MSCs.