Activation of JNK Signaling Mediates Amyloid-ß-Dependent Cell Death

Roswell Park Cancer Institute, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 09/2011; 6(9):e24361. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024361
Source: PubMed


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. One of the reasons for Alzheimer's neuropathology is the generation of large aggregates of Aß42 that are toxic in nature and induce oxidative stress, aberrant signaling and many other cellular alterations that trigger neuronal cell death. However, the exact mechanisms leading to cell death are not clearly understood.
We employed a Drosophila eye model of AD to study how Aß42 causes cell death. Misexpression of higher levels of Aß42 in the differentiating photoreceptors of fly retina rapidly induced aberrant cellular phenotypes and cell death. We found that blocking caspase-dependent cell death initially blocked cell death but did not lead to a significant rescue in the adult eye. However, blocking the levels of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway significantly rescued the neurodegeneration phenotype of Aß42 misexpression both in eye imaginal disc as well as the adult eye. Misexpression of Aß42 induced transcriptional upregulation of puckered (puc), a downstream target and functional read out of JNK signaling. Moreover, a three-fold increase in phospho-Jun (activated Jun) protein levels was seen in Aß42 retina as compared to the wild-type retina. When we blocked both caspases and JNK signaling simultaneously in the fly retina, the rescue of the neurodegenerative phenotype is comparable to that caused by blocking JNK signaling pathway alone.
Our data suggests that (i) accumulation of Aß42 plaques induces JNK signaling in neurons and (ii) induction of JNK contributes to Aß42 mediated cell death. Therefore, inappropriate JNK activation may indeed be relevant to the AD neuropathology, thus making JNK a key target for AD therapies.

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    • "In parallel, Activase® rt-PA chronic administration significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of SAPK/JNK in the brain of treated mice. SAPK/JNK is activated by a variety of environmental stresses, including Aβ (Tare et al., 2011). As such, these results outline a global reduction in the environmental stresses in the brain of APPswe/PS1 mice following rt-PA treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among elderly population. AD is characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, which aggregate over time to form amyloid plaques in the brain. Reducing soluble Aβ levels and consequently amyloid plaques constitute an attractive therapeutic avenue to, at least, stabilize AD pathogenesis. The brain possesses several mechanisms involved in controlling cerebral Aβ levels, among which are the tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA)/plasmin system and microglia. However, these mechanisms are impaired and ineffective in AD. Here we show that the systemic chronic administration of recombinant t-PA (Activase(®) rt-PA) attenuates AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1 transgenic mice by reducing cerebral Aβ levels and improving the cognitive function of treated mice. Interestingly, these effects do not appear to be mediated by rt-PA-induced plasmin and matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9) activation We observed that rt-PA essentially mediated a slight transient increase in the frequency of patrolling monocytes in the circulation and stimulated microglia in the brain to adopt a neuroprotective phenotype, both of which contribute to Aβ elimination. Our study unraveled a new role of rt-PA in maintaining the phagocytic capacity of microglia without exacerbating the inflammatory response and therefore might constitute an interesting approach to stimulate the key populations of cells involved in Aβ clearance from the brain.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 09 September 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.279.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.279 · 7.05 Impact Factor
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    • "We have generated a transgenic fly model where GMR enhancer drives the expression of the human Aβ42 gene (GMR>Aβ42) in differentiating photoreceptor neurons of the developing retina [26,28]. Accumulation of Aβ42 triggers aberrant signaling mechanism(s) and impairs the basic cellular processes leading to the death of neurons in the developing neural retina of pupa and the adult eye ( Figure 1, Table 1) [26]. However, the genetic basis of Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration has not been fully understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of cognition, and eventual death of the affected individual. One of the major causes of AD is the accumulation of Amyloid-beta 42 (Aβ42) polypeptides formed by the improper cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. These plaques disrupt normal cellular processes through oxidative stress and aberrant signaling resulting in the loss of synaptic activity and death of the neurons. However, the detailed genetic mechanism(s) responsible for this neurodegeneration still remain elusive. We have generated a transgenic Drosophila eye model where high levels of human Aβ42 is misexpressed in the differentiating photoreceptor neurons of the developing eye, which phenocopy Alzheimer's like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have utilized this model for a gain of function screen using members of various signaling pathways involved in the development of the fly eye to identify downstream targets or modifiers of Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. We have identified the homeotic gene teashirt (tsh) as a suppressor of the Aβ42 mediated neurodegenerative phenotype. Targeted misexpression of tsh with Aβ42 in the differentiating retina can significantly rescue neurodegeneration by blocking cell death. We found that Tsh protein is absent/ downregulated in the neural retina at this stage. The structure function analysis revealed that the PLDLS domain of Tsh acts as an inhibitor of the neuroprotective function of tsh in the Drosophila eye model. Lastly, we found that the tsh paralog, tiptop (tio) can also rescue Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. We have identified tsh and tio as new genetic modifiers of Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. Our studies demonstrate a novel neuroprotective function of tsh and its paralog tio in Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective function of tsh is independent of its role in retinal determination.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80829. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080829 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, our data using the transgenic model suggests that Crb also acts downstream of γ-secretase mediated cleavage of APP. Furthermore, higher levels of Crb can enhance human Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration [3]. Thus, Crb role in modulating Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration is downstream of N signaling pathway. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42) aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s). We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have identified an apical-basal polarity gene crumbs (crb) as a genetic modifier of Aβ42-mediated-neuropathology. Misexpression of Aβ42 caused upregulation of Crb expression, whereas downregulation of Crb either by RNAi or null allele approach rescued the Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. Co-expression of full length Crb with Aβ42 increased severity of Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration, due to three fold induction of cell death in comparison to the wild type. Higher Crb levels affect axonal targeting from the retina to the brain. The structure function analysis identified intracellular domain of Crb to be required for Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. We demonstrate a novel neuroprotective role of Crb in Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78717. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078717 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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