Article

The Effect of Synovial Fluid Enzymes on the Biodegradability of Collagen and Fibrin Clots.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Boston, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Materials (Impact Factor: 1.88). 08/2011; 4(8):1469-1482. DOI: 10.3390/ma4081469
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently there has been a great deal of interest in the use of biomaterials to stimulate wound healing. This is largely due to their ability to centralize high concentrations of compounds known to promote wound healing at a needed location. Joints present a unique challenge to using scaffolds because of the presence of enzymes in synovial fluid which are known to degrade materials that would be stable in other parts of the body. The hypothesis of this study was that atelocollagen scaffolds would have greater resistance to enzymatic degradation than scaffolds made of gelatin, fibrin and whole blood. To test this hypothesis, collagen and fibrin-based scaffolds were placed in matrix metallopeptidase-1 (MMP-1), elastase, and plasmin solutions at physiologic concentrations, and the degradation of each scaffold was measured at varying time points. The atelocollagen scaffolds had a significantly greater resistance to degradation by MMP-1, elastase and plasmin over the fibrin based scaffolds. The results suggest that atelocollagen-based scaffolds may provide some protection against premature degradation by synovial fluid enzymes over fibrin-based matrices.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
106 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fails to heal after suture repair. One hypothesis for this failure is the premature loss of the fibrin clot, or provisional scaffolding, between the two ligament ends in the joint environment. To test this hypothesis, a substitute provisional scaffold of collagen-platelet rich plasma (PRP) hydrogel was used to fill the ACL wound site at the time of suture repair and the structural properties of the healing ACLs evaluated 4 weeks after surgery. Bilateral ACL transections were performed in five 30-kg Yorkshire pigs and treated with suture repair. In each animal, one of the repairs was augmented with placement of a collagen-PRP hydrogel at the ACL transection site, while the contralateral knee had suture repair alone. In addition, six control knees with intact ACLs from three additional animals were used as a control group. No postoperative immobilization was used. After 4 weeks the animals underwent in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to assess the size of the healing ACL, followed by biomechanical testing to determine tensile properties. The supplementation of suture repair with a collagen-PRP hydrogel resulted in significant improvements in load at yield, maximum load, and linear stiffness at 4 weeks. We conclude that use of a stabilized provisional scaffold, such as a collagen-PRP hydrogel, to supplement primary repair of the ACL can result in improved biomechanical properties at an early time point. Further studies to determine the long-term effect of primary repair enhancement are needed.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 02/2007; 25(1):81-91. · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee is an intra-articular ligament that fails to heal after primary repair. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is an extra-articular ligament that heals uneventfully in the majority of cases. Why these two ligaments have such different responses to injury remains unclear. In this article, we address two hypotheses: first, that the histologic response to injury is different in intra-articular and extra-articular ligaments, and second, that the response of the intra-articular ligaments can be altered by placing a collagen-platelet-rich plasma (collagen-PRP) hydrogel in the wound site. Wounds were created in extra-articular ligaments (MCL and/or patellar ligament) and an intra-articular ligament (ACL) in canine knees, and the histologic response to injury evaluated at 3 days (n = 3), 7 days (n = 4), 3 weeks (n = 5), and 6 weeks (n = 5). In the 3-week (n = 5) and 6-week (n = 5) animals, bilateral central wounds were made in the ACLs and the wounds in one knee of each animal treated with a collagen-PRP hydrogel while the contralateral side was untreated. Extra-articular ligament wounds had greater filling of the wound site and increased presence in the wound site of fibrinogen, fibronectin, PDGF-A, TGF-beta1, FGF-2, and von Willebrand's factor when compared to intra-articular ligament wounds. Treatment of the intra-articular wound with a collagen-PRP hydrogel resulted in increased filling of the wound site with repair tissue that had similar profiles of growth factor and protein expression to the extra-articular ligament wounds. The use of a collagen-PRP scaffold can ameliorate histologic differences noted between healing extra-articular ligamentous wounds and nonhealing intra-articular ligamentous wounds. This study supports the hypothesis that premature scaffold failure may play a key role in the normally expected failure of the ACL to heal after injury.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 09/2007; 25(8):1007-17. · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee fails to heal after primary repair. Here we hypothesize that a beneficial biologic repair response can be induced by placing a collagen-platelet rich plasma (collagen-PRP) material into a central ACL defect. A collagen-PRP scaffold was used to treat a central ACL defect in vivo. In the first experiment, the histologic response in treated and untreated defects was evaluated at 3 (n = 5) and 6 weeks (n = 5). In the second experiment, biomechanical testing of the treated ligaments (n = 8) was performed at 6 weeks and compared with the results of biomechanical testing of untreated defects at the same time-point (n = 6). The percentage filling of the defects in the treated ACLs was significantly higher at both the 3- and 6-week time-points when compared with the untreated contralateral control defects (50 +/- 21% vs. 2 +/- 2% at 3 weeks, and 43 +/- 11% vs. 23 +/- 11 at 6 weeks; all values mean +/- SEM. Biomechanically, the treated ACL defects had a 40% increase in strength at 6 weeks, which was significantly higher than the 14% increase in strength previously reported for untreated defects (p < 0.02). Placement of a collagen-PRP bridging scaffold in a central ACL defect can stimulate healing of the ACL histologically and biomechanically.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 04/2006; 24(4):820-30. · 2.97 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
45 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014