The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis

Center for Plant Stress Genomics and Technology, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 6.84). 09/2011; 157(3):1079-92. DOI: 10.1104/pp.111.185132
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A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C(20:0) or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling.

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    • "Disruption of this gene in Arabidopsis (EMB22, GURKE, and PASTICCINO3 [PAS3]) results in an embryo-defective phenotype distinct from that seen following a loss of chloroplast translation (Meinke, 1985; Baud et al., 2004). Weak alleles exhibit cold sensitivity and glossy inflorescence stems resulting from changes in cuticular wax composition (Lü et al., 2011; Amid et al., 2012). The adjacent copy (ACC2; At1g36180) is expressed at low levels and is predicted to encode a chloroplast-localized protein (Yanai et al., 1995; Baud et al., 2003; Babiychuk et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations that eliminate chloroplast translation in Arabidopsis result in embryo lethality. The stage of embryo arrest, however, can be influenced by genetic background. To identify genes responsible for improved growth in the absence of chloroplast translation, we examined seedling responses of different Arabidopsis accessions on spectinomycin, an inhibitor of chloroplast translation, and crossed the most tolerant accessions with embryo-defective mutants disrupted in chloroplast ribosomal proteins generated in a sensitive background. The results indicate that tolerance is mediated by ACC2, a duplicated nuclear gene that targets homomeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) to plastids, where the multi-domain protein can participate in fatty acid biosynthesis. In the presence of functional ACC2, tolerance is enhanced by a second locus that maps to chromosome 5 and heightened by additional genetic modifiers present in the most tolerant accessions. Notably, some of the most sensitive accessions contain nonsense mutations in ACC2, including the "Nossen" line used to generate several of the mutants studied here. Functional ACC2 protein is therefore not required for survival in natural environments, where heteromeric ACCase encoded in part by the chloroplast genome can function instead. This work highlights an interesting example of a tandem gene duplication in Arabidopsis, helps to explain the range of embryo phenotypes found in Arabidopsis mutants disrupted in essential chloroplast functions, addresses the nature of essential proteins encoded by the chloroplast genome, and underscores the value of using natural variation to study the relationship between chloroplast translation, plant metabolism, protein import, and plant development.
    Plant physiology 10/2014; 166(4). DOI:10.1104/pp.114.249052 · 6.84 Impact Factor
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    • "A distorted cuticular layer often results in an increased permeability of leaves [32-34]. To test this, we incubated 4 weeks old leaves with Toluidine Blue (TB) solution (0.05% w/v) for 2 min, and assessed the staining intensities. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype.
    BMC Plant Biology 12/2013; 13(1):215. DOI:10.1186/1471-2229-13-215 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutation of the ECERIFERUM9 (CER9) gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) causes elevated amounts of 18-carbon-length cutin monomers and a dramatic shift in the cuticular wax profile (especially on leaves) toward the very-long-chain free fatty acids tetracosanoic acid (C₂₄) and hexacosanoic acid (C₂₆). Relative to the wild type, cer9 mutants exhibit elevated cuticle membrane thickness over epidermal cells and cuticular ledges with increased occlusion of the stomatal pore. The cuticular phenotypes of cer9 are associated with delayed onset of wilting in plants experiencing water deficit, lower transpiration rates, and improved water use efficiency measured as carbon isotope discrimination. The CER9 protein thus encodes a novel determinant of plant drought tolerance-associated traits, one whose deficiency elevates cutin synthesis, redistributes wax composition, and suppresses transpiration. Map-based cloning identified CER9, and sequence analysis predicted that it encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase homologous to yeast Doa10 (previously shown to target endoplasmic reticulum proteins for proteasomal degradation). To further elucidate CER9 function, the impact of CER9 deficiency on interactions with other genes was examined using double mutant and transcriptome analyses. For both wax and cutin, cer9 showed mostly additive effects with cer6, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase1 (lacs1), and lacs2 and revealed its role in early steps of both wax and cutin synthetic pathways. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the cer9 mutation affected diverse cellular processes, with primary impact on genes associated with diverse stress responses. The discovery of CER9 lays new groundwork for developing novel cuticle-based strategies for improving the drought tolerance and water use efficiency of crop plants.
    Plant physiology 05/2012; 159(3):930-44. DOI:10.1104/pp.112.198697 · 6.84 Impact Factor
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