Two siblings had pneumonia caused by macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae as determined by polymerase chain reaction and serology. One of them developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. This report highlights the need for studies to evaluate the optimal treatment in severe cases of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae pneumonia.
"Although the prevalence of MRMP varies from country to country, it has generally increased2). The clinical relevance of the increased prevalence of MRMP has not been definitely established; however, the clinical course of MRMP pneumonia appears to be prolonged3,4), and recent case reports revealed that MRMP can cause severe complications5,6). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of MRMP in a tertiary hospital in Korea, and to find potential laboratory markers that could be used to predict the efficacy of macrolides in children with MRMP pneumonia.
A total of 95 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were enrolled in this study. Detection of MRMP was based on the results of specific point mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene. The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively and the clinical course and laboratory data were compared.
The proportion of patients with MRMP was 51.6% and all MRMP isolates had the A2063G point mutation. The MRMP group had longer hospital stay and febrile period after initiation of macrolides. The levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-18 in nasopharyngeal aspirate were significantly higher in patients who did not respond to macrolide treatment. CRP was the only significant factor in predicting the efficacy of macrolides in patients with MRMP pneumonia. The area under the curve for CRP was 0.69 in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, indicating reasonable discriminative power, and the optimal cutoff value was 40.7 mg/L.
The proportion of patients with MRMP was high, suggesting that the prevalence of MRMP is rising rapidly in Korea. Serum CRP could be a useful marker for predicting the efficacy of macrolides and helping clinicians make better clinical decisions in children with MRMP pneumonia.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 57(4):186-92. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.4.186
"However, approximately 10% of the patients developed pneumonia and antibiotic treatment was needed. In severe cases, hospitalization was required and there were lethal cases when patients were infected by macrolide-resistant Mpn strains [6,7]. During the last 10 years macrolide-resistant Mpn strains have been frequently reported in Asian countries and have been spreading to Europe and the United States. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mpn) is a human pathogen that causes acute and chronic respiratory diseases and has been linked to many extrapulmonary diseases. Due to the lack of cell wall, Mpn is resistant to antibiotics targeting cell wall synthesis such as penicillin. During the last 10 years macrolide-resistant Mpn strains have been frequently reported in Asian countries and have been spreading to Europe and the United States. Therefore, new antibiotics are needed. In this study, 30 FDA-approved anticancer or antiviral drugs were screened for inhibitory effects on Mpn growth and selected analogs were further characterized by inhibition of target enzymes and metabolism of radiolabeled substrates.
Sixteen drugs showed varying inhibitory effects and seven showed strong inhibition of Mpn growth. The anticancer drug 6-thioguanine had a MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration required to cause 90% of growth inhibition) value of 0.20 mug ml-1, whereas trifluorothymidine, gemcitabine and dipyridamole had MIC values of approximately 2 mug ml-1. In wild type Mpn culture the presence of 6-thioguanine and dipyridamole strongly inhibited the uptake and metabolism of hypoxanthine and guanine while gemcitabine inhibited the uptake and metabolism of all nucleobases and thymidine. Trifluorothymidine and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, however, stimulated the uptake and incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and this stimulation was due to induction of thymidine kinase activity. Furthermore, Mpn hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) was cloned, expressed, and characterized. The 6-thioguanine, but not other purine analogs, strongly inhibited HPRT, which may in part explain the observed growth inhibition. Trifluorothymidine and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine were shown to be good substrates and inhibitors for thymidine kinase from human and Mycoplasma sources.
We have shown that several anticancer and antiviral nucleoside and nucleobase analogs are potent inhibitors of Mpn growth and that the mechanism of inhibition are most likely due to inhibition of enzymes in the nucleotide biosynthesis pathway and nucleoside transporter. Our results suggest that enzymes in Mycoplasma nucleotide biosynthesis are potential targets for future design of antibiotics against Mycoplasma infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Pneumonia is the leading reason for hospitalization in children. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in Taiwan in October 2005. There has been no comprehensive study of the etiology of childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), either in the pre- or postpneumococcal conjugate vaccine era, in Taiwan.
: From August 2001 to July 2002, consecutive children admitted to a teaching hospital with radiologically confirmed CAP were prospectively enrolled. The following were considered indicative of infection when positive: blood or pleural effusion bacterial culture or urinary Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test (Binax NOW), direct immunofluorescent antigen test for Chlamydia species and viruses, virus isolation and identification and viral, mycoplasmal or chlamydial serologic tests.
: A total of 209 children were included, and 102 children (48.8%) were male. Patients' ages ranged from 7 months to 16 years with a median of 4 years and 3 months. The combined tests identified at least 1 etiologic agent in 85.6% of all cases, including typical bacterial pathogens in 88 cases (42.1%; 86 S. pneumoniae, 1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Mycoplasma pneumoniae in 77 cases (36.8%), Chlamydia species in 24 cases (11.5%), viral etiology in 86 cases (41.1%) and mixed viral-bacterial infections in 69 cases (33%). Children with S. pneumoniae infection were significantly younger than those with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (P = 0.0055) or unknown etiology (P = 0.0140).
: S. pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and viruses were equally common etiologic agents of childhood CAP in Taiwan. Frequent coinfection increased the difficulty of both predicting the responsible organisms and choosing empiric antibiotics for the management of pediatric CAP.
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