Retrospective chart review of children with type 2 diabetes mellitus evaluating the efficacy of metformin vs. insulin vs. combination insulin/metformin.
ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in pediatrics and there is no consensus on the best treatment. We conducted this chart review on newly diagnosed pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to compare the effect of treatment regimen on body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1c over a 6-month period.
We conducted a retrospective chart review on patients with type 2 DM who presented to Nationwide Children's Hospital. Data were collected on therapy type, BMI, and hemoglobin A1c over a 6-month follow-up. Therapy type was divided into metformin, insulin, or combination insulin and metformin. 1,997 charts were reviewed for inclusion based on ICD-9 codes consistent with a diagnosis of diabetes, abnormal oral glucose tolerance test, or insulin resistance.
Of the 47 charts eligible for the review, 26 subjects were treated with metformin 1000-1500 mg daily, 14 patients were treated with insulin therapy, and 7 patients were treated with a combination of insulin and metformin therapy. At baseline, the only significant difference among groups was A1c (P = 0.012). In regression analysis with baseline A1c as a covariate, the only predictor of change in A1c over time was the A1c at onset (P < 0.001). Therapy type was not predictive of change (P = 0.905). Regression analysis showed a greater BMI at onset predicted a greater decrease in BMI (P = 0.006), but therapy type did not predict a change (P = 0.517).
Metformin may be as effective as insulin or combination therapy for treatment of diabetes from onset to 6-month follow-up.
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ABSTRACT: To establish the antihyperglycemic mechanisms of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) independently of the long-term, aspecific effects of removal of glucotoxicity, 21 NIDDM subjects (14 obese, 7 nonobese) were studied on two separate occasions, with an isoglycemic (plasma glucose approximately 9 mM) hyperinsulinemic (two-step insulin infusion, 2 h each, at the rate of 4 and 40 mU.m-2.min-1) clamp combined with [3-3H]glucose infusion and indirect calorimetry, after administration of either metformin (500 mg per os, at -5 and -1 h before the clamp) or placebo. Compared with placebo, hepatic glucose production (HGP) decreased approximately 30% more after metformin (from 469 +/- 50 to 330 +/- 54 mumol/min), but glucose uptake did not increase. Metformin suppressed free fatty acids (FFAs) by approximately 17% (from 0.42 +/- 0.04 to 0.35 +/- 0.04 mM) and lipid oxidation by approximately 25% (from 4.5 +/- 0.4 to 3.4 +/- 0.4 mumol.kg-1.min-1) and increased glucose oxidation by approximately 16% (from 16.2 +/- 1.4 to 19.3 +/- 1.3 mumol.kg-1.min-1) compared with placebo (P < 0.05), but did not affect nonoxidative glucose metabolism, protein oxidation, or total energy expenditure. Suppression of FFA and lipid oxidation after metformin correlated with suppression of HGP (r = 0.70 and r = 0.51, P < 0.001). The effects of metformin in obese and nonobese subjects were no different. We conclude that the specific, antihyperglycemic effects of metformin in the clinical condition of hyperglycemia in NIDDM are primarily due to suppression of HGP, not stimulation of glucose uptake, and are mediated, at least in part, by suppression of FFA and lipid oxidation.Diabetes 07/1994; 43(7):920-8. DOI:10.2337/diabetes.43.7.920 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metformin is a biguanide that has been shown to effectively lower plasma glucose levels in subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, its mechanism of action remains unknown. Studies that have examined the effect of metformin on hepatic glucose production (HGP) and muscle glucose utilization in NIDDM have yielded conflicting results, and little information is available about the action of metformin on lactate turnover and gluconeogenesis from lactate in humans. We studied 20 NIDDM subjects and 8 nondiabetic controls in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of 15 weeks of treatment with metformin or placebo on glucose and lactate metabolism. Before and after treatment, all participants received a 7-h infusion of [6-3H]glucose and [3-14C]lactate in combination with indirect calorimetry and estimation of lactate central vein specific activity. A euglycemic insulin clamp (20 mU/m2.min) was performed during the last 3 h of the tracer infusions. The study design allowed us to evaluate the effects of metformin vs. placebo treatment on glycemic control, plasma lipid profile, HGP, insulin-mediated glucose uptake, oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism, and lactate turnover. Metformin treatment significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (196 +/- 18 vs. 152 +/- 12 mg/dL; P < 0.01), hemoglobin A1 (12.5 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.2 +/- 0.3%; P < 0.01), and plasma triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. When diabetics were compared to nondiabetic controls, basal HGP was higher (12.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 9.8 +/- 1.2 mumol/kg.min; P < 0.01) despite the presence of fasting hyperinsulinemia and insulin-mediated total body glucose disposal (10.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 20.2 +/- 3.3 mumol/kg.min; P < 0.01) was decreased. Metformin significantly reduced fasting HGP (from 12.9 +/- 0.7 to 11.0 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg.min; P < 0.01), but did not enhance total body glucose disposal during insulin stimulation (10.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 11.0 +/- 0.5 mumol/kg.min; P = NS). Neither oxidative nor nonoxidative glucose disposal was improved by metformin treatment. The fasting plasma lactate concentration (1.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) and lactate turnover (14.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.6 mumol/kg.min) were significantly increased in diabetics and strongly correlated (r = 0.68; P < 0.001). The percent gluconeogenesis derived from lactate was similar in diabetic and control subjects (17 +/- 2% vs. 15 +/- 2%; P = NS), but the estimated rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate was increased in the diabetic group (P < 0.01). Despite the significant reduction in HGP after metformin treatment, the percentage of gluconeogenesis from lactate and the rate of lactate-derived gluconeogenesis were unchanged from baseline. Basal lactate turnover (15.4 +/- 1.4 vs. 14.8 +/- 1.4 mumol/kg.min) and lactate oxidation (7.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.1 +/- 0.9 mumol/ kg.min) as well as total lactate turnover and lactate oxidation during the insulin clamp were similar before and after metformin treatment. There were no changes in any of the above metabolic parameters in the placebo-treated group. In poorly controlled NIDDM subjects, the primary mechanism by which metformin improves glycemic control is related to the suppression of accelerated basal HGP, and this most likely is secondary to an inhibition of hepatic glycogenolysis. Metformin has no effect on the rate of lactate turnover or gluconeogenesis from lactate in either the basal or insulin-stimulated states.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 12/1996; 81(11):4059-67. DOI:10.1210/jc.81.11.4059 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the mechanisms of fasting hyperglycemia in NIDDM patients with mild elevation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared with NIDDM patients with overt hyperglycemia, we studied 29 patients with NIDDM, who were divided in two groups according to their fasting plasma glucose (<7.8 and > or =7.8 mmol/l for groups A and B, respectively), and 16 control subjects who were matched with NIDDM patients for age, sex, and body mass index. All subjects were infused with [3-3H]glucose between 10:00 P.M. and 10:00 A.M. during overnight fasting to determine glucose fluxes. In 27 subjects (17 diabetic and 10 control), [U-14C]alanine was simultaneously infused between 4:00 A.M. and 10:00 A.M. to measure gluconeogenesis (GNG) from alanine. Arterialized-venous plasma samples were collected every 30 min for measurement of glucose fluxes, GNG, and glucoregulatory hormones. In group A, plasma glucose, rate of systemic glucose production (SGP), and GNG were greater than in control subjects (7.2 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, 10.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 9.5 +/- 0.3 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), and 0.58 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.02 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), respectively, for group A and control subjects; mean value 8:00 A.M.-10:00 A.M., all P < 0.05). Both increased SGP and GNG correlated with plasma glucose in all subjects (r = 0.77 and r = 0.75, respectively, P < 0.005). Plasma counterregulatory hormones did not differ in NIDDM patients compared to control subjects. The present studies demonstrate that SGP and GNG are increased in NIDDM patients without overt fasting hyperglycemia. Thus these metabolic abnormalities primarily contribute to early development of overnight and fasting hyperglycemia in NIDDM.Diabetes 07/1997; 46(6):1010-6. DOI:10.2337/diabetes.46.6.1010 · 8.47 Impact Factor