Carotid intima-media thickness, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, and incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT Carotid intima-media thickness and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy are 2 subclinical cardiovascular disease measures associated with increased risk of total and ischemic strokes. Increased intima-media thickness and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy also may reflect end-organ hypertensive effects. Information is scant on the associations of these subclinical measures with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We hypothesized that greater carotid intima-media thickness and the presence of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy would be independently associated with increased ICH incidence.
Among 18,155 participants initially free of stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), we assessed carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. Over a median of 18 years of follow-up, 162 incident ICH events occurred.
After adjustment for other ICH risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness was associated positively with incidence of ICH in both ARIC and CHS. The risk was lowest in study-specific Quartile 1, elevated 1.6- to 2.6-fold in Quartiles 2 to 3, and elevated 2.5 to 3.7-fold in Quartile 4 (P<0.05 for both studies). In CHS, having a carotid plaque was associated with a 2-fold (95% CI, 1.1-3.4) greater ICH risk than having no plaque, but only 1.2-fold (95% CI, 0.76-2.0) greater ICH risk in ARIC. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy carried a hazard ratio of ICH of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.77-3.7) in CHS and 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.4) in ARIC.
Our data suggest that people with carotid atherosclerosis and possibly left ventricular hypertrophy are at increased risk not only of ischemic stroke, but also of ICH.
Article: Stroke incidence and survival among middle-aged adults: 9-year follow-up of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although stroke mortality rates in the United States are well documented, assessment of incidence rates and case fatality are less well studied. A cohort of 15 792 men and women aged 45 to 64 years from a population sample of households in 4 US communities was followed from 1987 to 1995, an average of 7. 2 years. Incident strokes were identified through annual phone contacts and hospital record searching and were then validated. Of the 267 incident definite or probable strokes, 83% (n=221) were categorized as ischemic strokes, 10% (n=27) were intracerebral hemorrhages, and 7% (n=19) were subarachnoid hemorrhages. The age-adjusted incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of total strokes was highest among black men (4.44), followed by black women (3.10), white men (1.78), and white women (1.24). The black versus white age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) for ischemic stroke was 2.41 (95% CI, 1.85 to 3.15), which was attenuated to 1.38 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.89) after adjustment for baseline hypertension, diabetes, education level, smoking status, and prevalent coronary heart disease. There was a tendency for the adjusted case fatality rates to be higher among blacks and men, although none of the case fatality comparisons across sex or race was statistically significant. After accounting for established baseline risk factors, blacks still had a 38% greater risk of incident ischemic stroke compared with whites. Identification of new individual and community-level risk factors accounting for the elevated incidence of stroke requires further investigation and incorporation into intervention planning.Stroke 05/1999; 30(4):736-43. · 5.73 Impact Factor
Article: Use of sonography to evaluate carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study. CHS Collaborative Research Group.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carotid sonography is being performed on more than 5,000 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a prospective, multicenter study of cardiovascular disease in men and women aged 65 years and older. The sonographic methods used to examine and measure the extracranial carotid arteries are described. Initial validation studies were performed on 61 subjects with a mean age of 68.6 years. Analysis of within- and between-sonographer differences and between-reader differences were performed for selected variables. In general, the mean absolute differences for within- and between-sonographer comparisons were small, with even less variability between readers. Variability was less for the common carotid artery than for the internal carotid artery. These data suggest that carotid sonography is a reliable and reproducible method for use in the study of carotid atherosclerosis in population studies.Stroke 10/1991; 22(9):1155-63. · 5.73 Impact Factor