Association Between Type of Health Insurance and Elective Cesarean Deliveries: New Jersey, 2004–2007
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0626, USA. American Journal of Public Health
(Impact Factor: 4.55).
09/2011; 101(11):e1-7. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300333
I examined the relationship between insurance coverage, which may influence physician incentives and maternal choices, and cesarean delivery before labor.
I analyzed hospital discharge data for mothers without previous cesarean deliveries in New Jersey between 2004 and 2007, with adjustment for maternal age, race, marital status, and maternal, fetal, and placental conditions.
Nearly 1 in 7 women (13.9%) had a cesarean delivery without laboring. Insurance status was strongly associated with cesarean birth. Women insured by Medicaid (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.91) or self-paying (ARR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.85) had a significantly lower likelihood, and women insured by BlueCross (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.09) or standard commercial plans (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10) had a significantly higher likelihood of cesarean delivery than did women insured by commercial health maintenance organizations. These associations persisted in subsets restricted to lower-risk women and in qualitative sensitivity analyses for a hypothetical single, binary, unmeasured confounder.
Insurance status has a small, independent impact on whether a woman without a previous cesarean delivery proceeds to labor or has a cesarean delivery without labor.
Available from: thaoweb.com
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The serious consequences of obesity and eating disorders (ED), difficulties encountered in treatment and the high prevalence of these conditions are important reasons to develop efforts aimed at their prevention. The implementation of integrated interventions aimed at preventing risk factors for both obesity and ED constitutes a very exciting development. In the present paper we discuss and review the main reasons for an integrated approach to the spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, anorexic and bulimic behaviours, unhealthy dieting practices, body dissatisfaction, binge-eating disorder, overweight and obesity. Given differences between the fields with regard to current perspectives and objectives, key barriers to an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. In order to show the possibilities of development of this approach, we review the main contributions made to date in the fields of both obesity and ED prevention. In particular, environmental approaches in the prevention of obesity and ED are reviewed, given their potential for preventing a broad spectrum of eating- and weight-related problems. Furthermore, several examples of initiatives that have utilized an integrated approach to prevention are discussed. DESIGN: Narrative review. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a scenario in which the two fields share knowledge to enhance the difficult work of preventing and treating both ED and obesity.
Public Health Nutrition 03/2012; 15(12):1-15. DOI:10.1017/S1368980012000705 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to examine differences in risk of cesarean delivery among diverse ethnic groups in New York City. Using cross-sectional New York City birth and hospitalization data from 1995 to 2003 (n = 961,381) we estimated risk ratios for ethnic groups relative to non-Hispanic whites and immigrant women relative to US-born women. Adjusting for insurance, pre-pregnancy weight, maternal age, education, parity, birthweight, gestational age, year, medical complications, and pregnancy complications, all ethnic groups except East Asian women were at an increased risk of cesarean delivery, with the highest risk among Hispanic Caribbean women [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.27, 95 % CI (confidence interval) = 1.24, 1.30] and African American women (aRR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 1.17, 1.23). Among Hispanic groups, immigrant status further increased adjusted risk of cesarean delivery; adjusted risk ratios for foreign-born women compared to US-born women of the same ethnic group were 1.27 for Mexican women (95 % CI = 1.05, 1.53), 1.23 for Hispanic Caribbean women (95 % CI = 1.20, 1.27), and 1.12 for Central/South American women (95 % CI = 1.04, 1.21). Similar patterns were found in subgroup analyses of low-risk women (term delivery and no pregnancy or medical complications) and primiparous women. We found evidence of disparities by ethnicity and nativity in cesarean delivery rates after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Efforts to reduce rates of cesarean delivery should address these disparities. Future research should explore potential explanations including hospital environment, provider bias, and patient preference.
Maternal and Child Health Journal 03/2013; 18(1). DOI:10.1007/s10995-013-1261-6 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Childbirth is the leading reason for hospitalization in the United States, and maternityrelated expenditures are substantial for many health insurance programs, including Medicaid. We studied the relationship between primary payer and trends in hospital-based childbirth care. Study Designs: Retrospective analysis of hospital discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, a 20% stratified sample of US hospitals. Methods: Data on 6,717,486 hospital-based births for the years 2002 through 2009 came from the NIS. We used generalized estimating equations to measure associations over time between primary payer (Medicaid, private insurance, or self) and cesarean delivery, vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), labor induction, and episiotomy. Results: Controlling for clinical, demographic, and hospital factors, births covered by Medicaid had lower odds of cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91), labor induction (AOR, 0.73), and episiotomy (AOR, 0.62) and higher odds of VBAC (AOR, 1.20; P <.001 for all AORs) compared with privately insured births. Cesarean rates increased 6% annually among births paid by private insurance (AOR, 1.06; P <.001) and less rapidly (5% annually) among those covered by Medicaid. Conclusions: US hospital-based births covered by private insurance were associated with higher rates of obstetric intervention than births paid for by Medicaid. After controlling for clinical, demographic, and hospital factors, cesarean delivery rates increased more rapidly among births covered by private insurance, compared with Medicaid. Changes in insurance coverage associated with healthcare reform may impact costs and quality of care for women giving birth in US hospitals.
The American journal of managed care 06/2013; 19(4):e125-e132. · 2.26 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.