Widespread Occurrence of Bisphenol A in Paper and Paper Products: Implications for Human Exposure
ABSTRACT Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a variety of consumer products, including some paper products, particularly thermal receipt papers, for which it is used as a color developer. Nevertheless, little is known about the magnitude of BPA contamination or human exposure to BPA as a result of contact with paper and paper products. In this study, concentrations of BPA were determined in 15 types of paper products (n = 202), including thermal receipts, flyers, magazines, tickets, mailing envelopes, newspapers, food contact papers, food cartons, airplane boarding passes, luggage tags, printing papers, business cards, napkins, paper towels, and toilet paper, collected from several cities in the USA. Thermal receipt papers also were collected from Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. BPA was found in 94% of thermal receipt papers (n = 103) at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ, 1 ng/g) to 13.9 mg/g (geometric mean: 0.211 mg/g). The majority (81%) of other paper products (n = 99) contained BPA at concentrations ranging from below the LOQ to 14.4 μg/g (geometric mean: 0.016 μg/g). Whereas thermal receipt papers contained the highest concentrations of BPA (milligram-per-gram), some paper products, including napkins and toilet paper, made from recycled papers contained microgram-per-gram concentrations of BPA. Contamination during the paper recycling process is a source of BPA in paper products. Daily intake (DI) of BPA through dermal absorption was estimated based on the measured BPA concentrations and handling frequency of paper products. The daily intake of BPA (calculated from median concentrations) through dermal absorption from handling of papers was 17.5 and 1300 ng/day for the general population and occupationally exposed individuals, respectively; these values are minor compared with exposure through diet. Among paper products, thermal receipt papers contributed to the majority (>98%) of the exposures.
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ABSTRACT: I dette kartleggingsprosjektet ble analysert konsentrasjonene til en lang rekke uorganiske og organiske miljøgifter, som metaller, organotinn, polysykliske aromatiske hydrokarboner, polyklorerte bifenyler og metabolitter, klorerte parafiner, klororganiske pesticider og andre pesticider, per- og polyfluoroalkylstoffer, deklorane pluss, oktaklorostyren, organofosfor flammehemmere, bromerte flammehemmere, brom- og alkylfenoler, siloksaner og ftalater i sjøfuglegg av ærfugl, toppskarv og gråmåke fra Sklinna og Røst. Totalt ble det analysert 201 forskjellige kjemiske stoffer, hvorav 53 enkel forbindelser ikke ble detektert over deteksjonsgrensen. I tillegg ble støtteparametere som stabile isotoper til N og C og fettprosent undersøkt. formålet med studien var å kunne gi en oppdatert vurdering av forurensingssituasjonen i det norske havområdet. ( Within the present screening project concentration levels of a broad range of inorganic and organic environmental contaminants in seabrid eggs of the common eider, shag and herring gull collected at the islands Sklinna and Røst were targeted for analysis ranging from metals, organotin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and metabolites, chlorinated pesticides and other pesticides, per-and polyfluoroalkylated substances, declorane plus, octachlorostyrene, phosphororganic and brominated flame retardants, bromo- and alkylphenols, siloxanes and phthalates. In total 201 different chemical compounds were analysed, whereas 53 single compounds have not been detected over the limit of detection. Additionally other parameters as stable isotopes of N and C and lipid content were investigated. The purpose of this report is to provide an updated assessment of pollution present within the marine environment in Norway.)
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ABSTRACT: A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol in human blood serum. For the first time, the electrospray ionization (ESI) parameters of probe position, voltage potential, sheath gas flow rate, auxiliary gas flow rate, and ion transfer tube temperature were thoroughly studied and optimized for each phenol by a univariate approach. As a consequence, low instrumental limits of detection were reported, demonstrating at 0.2ng/mL (in solvent matrix) excellent injection repeatability (RSD<14.5%) and a confirmation peak for all target phenols. Extraction and purification of serum was performed by the novel Hybrid Solid Phase Extraction-Precipitation Technology technique (Hybrid SPE-PPT). The limits of detection in human blood serum were 0.80, 1.3 and 1.4ng/mL for BPA, 4-t-OP and 4-NP, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 02/2015; 986-987C:85-93. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2015.02.009 · 2.78 Impact Factor