Widespread Occurrence of Bisphenol A in Paper and Paper Products: Implications for Human Exposure

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 09/2011; 45(21):9372-9. DOI: 10.1021/es202507f
Source: PubMed


Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a variety of consumer products, including some paper products, particularly thermal receipt papers, for which it is used as a color developer. Nevertheless, little is known about the magnitude of BPA contamination or human exposure to BPA as a result of contact with paper and paper products. In this study, concentrations of BPA were determined in 15 types of paper products (n = 202), including thermal receipts, flyers, magazines, tickets, mailing envelopes, newspapers, food contact papers, food cartons, airplane boarding passes, luggage tags, printing papers, business cards, napkins, paper towels, and toilet paper, collected from several cities in the USA. Thermal receipt papers also were collected from Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. BPA was found in 94% of thermal receipt papers (n = 103) at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ, 1 ng/g) to 13.9 mg/g (geometric mean: 0.211 mg/g). The majority (81%) of other paper products (n = 99) contained BPA at concentrations ranging from below the LOQ to 14.4 μg/g (geometric mean: 0.016 μg/g). Whereas thermal receipt papers contained the highest concentrations of BPA (milligram-per-gram), some paper products, including napkins and toilet paper, made from recycled papers contained microgram-per-gram concentrations of BPA. Contamination during the paper recycling process is a source of BPA in paper products. Daily intake (DI) of BPA through dermal absorption was estimated based on the measured BPA concentrations and handling frequency of paper products. The daily intake of BPA (calculated from median concentrations) through dermal absorption from handling of papers was 17.5 and 1300 ng/day for the general population and occupationally exposed individuals, respectively; these values are minor compared with exposure through diet. Among paper products, thermal receipt papers contributed to the majority (>98%) of the exposures.

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Available from: Chunyang Liao, May 09, 2015
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    • "The release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to drinking water sources, particularly that of bisphenol A (BPA), is a great public health concern [1] [2] [3]. BPA is widely used in the synthesis of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, metal container linings, textiles , paper products, leathers, storm water, and landfill leachate [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. Most of the BPA used ends up in aquatic environments via municipal and industrial wastewater effluent discharge [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of bisphenol A (BPA) is important for the provision of safe drinking water, but its removal in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) is challenging. Thus, the present study involved the fabrication and characterization of powdered activated carbons impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPACs) with respect to the simultaneous removal of BPA and NOM. The number of Fe ions loaded into the PAC pores was optimized in terms of exposure time. Impregnation with iron oxide reduced the surface area and pore volume, but the pore size was maintained. IONPAC adsorbents had considerably greater sorption capabilities for BPA and NOM compared to native, bare PAC particles. The adsorption capacities of BPA and NOM were in the following sequence: bare PAC < hematite/PAC < magnetite/PAC < ferrihydrite/PAC. The enhanced removal by IONPACs was attributable to the surface coordination between the functional groups in the iron oxides (e.g., hydroxyl groups) and organics (e.g., phenolic/carboxyl groups). Iron oxide impregnation enabled the BPA uptake to be maintained in the presence of NOM, indicating that the hybrid adsorbent provided synergistic adsorption characteristics for BPA and NOM. Although the solution pH had a negligible impact on BPA uptake, the ionic strength showed a significant effect, particularly in the presence of divalent Ca ions.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 04/2015; 286. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.11.012 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Consequently, BPA is commonly found in a variety of everyday use items [1]. Its use has been documented in dental sealants, nail polishes, food packaging, flame-retardant materials [1], paper products [4], and lately even in paper currencies [5]. The other two APs, 4-t-OP and 4-NP, were extensively used until recently in the European Union (E.U.) and in the United States (U.S.) as intermediates in the production of phenolic resins and non-ionic detergents (alkylphenol ethoxylates) [2] [3] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol in human blood serum. For the first time, the electrospray ionization (ESI) parameters of probe position, voltage potential, sheath gas flow rate, auxiliary gas flow rate, and ion transfer tube temperature were thoroughly studied and optimized for each phenol by a univariate approach. As a consequence, low instrumental limits of detection were reported, demonstrating at 0.2ng/mL (in solvent matrix) excellent injection repeatability (RSD<14.5%) and a confirmation peak for all target phenols. Extraction and purification of serum was performed by the novel Hybrid Solid Phase Extraction-Precipitation Technology technique (Hybrid SPE-PPT). The limits of detection in human blood serum were 0.80, 1.3 and 1.4ng/mL for BPA, 4-t-OP and 4-NP, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 02/2015; 986-987C:85-93. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2015.02.009 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    • "These findings are consistent with some studies in humans 41 reporting associations between prenatal maternal BPA and child 42 behavior and executive function (Braun et al., 2009, 2011b; Harley 43 et al., 2013b; Perera et al., 2012). BPA is used in the manufacture of 44 can linings, plastic food and beverage containers, thermal receipts, 45 medical equipment, cigarette filters, and dental sealants (Duty 46 et al., 2013; Kloukos et al., 2013) (Ehrlich et al., 2014; Liao and 47 Kannan, 2011; Rudel et al., 2011). Exposure to BPA is widespread: 48 biomonitoring studies detect BPA in the urine of more than 90% of 49 those tested in the United States, Canada, and Europe (Centers for 50 Disease Control and Prevention, 2013; Vandenberg et al., 2010). "
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