Article

Widespread Occurrence of Bisphenol A in Paper and Paper Products: Implications for Human Exposure

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 09/2011; 45(21):9372-9. DOI: 10.1021/es202507f
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a variety of consumer products, including some paper products, particularly thermal receipt papers, for which it is used as a color developer. Nevertheless, little is known about the magnitude of BPA contamination or human exposure to BPA as a result of contact with paper and paper products. In this study, concentrations of BPA were determined in 15 types of paper products (n = 202), including thermal receipts, flyers, magazines, tickets, mailing envelopes, newspapers, food contact papers, food cartons, airplane boarding passes, luggage tags, printing papers, business cards, napkins, paper towels, and toilet paper, collected from several cities in the USA. Thermal receipt papers also were collected from Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. BPA was found in 94% of thermal receipt papers (n = 103) at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ, 1 ng/g) to 13.9 mg/g (geometric mean: 0.211 mg/g). The majority (81%) of other paper products (n = 99) contained BPA at concentrations ranging from below the LOQ to 14.4 μg/g (geometric mean: 0.016 μg/g). Whereas thermal receipt papers contained the highest concentrations of BPA (milligram-per-gram), some paper products, including napkins and toilet paper, made from recycled papers contained microgram-per-gram concentrations of BPA. Contamination during the paper recycling process is a source of BPA in paper products. Daily intake (DI) of BPA through dermal absorption was estimated based on the measured BPA concentrations and handling frequency of paper products. The daily intake of BPA (calculated from median concentrations) through dermal absorption from handling of papers was 17.5 and 1300 ng/day for the general population and occupationally exposed individuals, respectively; these values are minor compared with exposure through diet. Among paper products, thermal receipt papers contributed to the majority (>98%) of the exposures.

Full-text

Available from: Chunyang Liao, May 09, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
191 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Waste Management 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2015.02.028 · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: I dette kartleggingsprosjektet ble analysert konsentrasjonene til en lang rekke uorganiske og organiske miljøgifter, som metaller, organotinn, polysykliske aromatiske hydrokarboner, polyklorerte bifenyler og metabolitter, klorerte parafiner, klororganiske pesticider og andre pesticider, per- og polyfluoroalkylstoffer, deklorane pluss, oktaklorostyren, organofosfor flammehemmere, bromerte flammehemmere, brom- og alkylfenoler, siloksaner og ftalater i sjøfuglegg av ærfugl, toppskarv og gråmåke fra Sklinna og Røst. Totalt ble det analysert 201 forskjellige kjemiske stoffer, hvorav 53 enkel forbindelser ikke ble detektert over deteksjonsgrensen. I tillegg ble støtteparametere som stabile isotoper til N og C og fettprosent undersøkt. formålet med studien var å kunne gi en oppdatert vurdering av forurensingssituasjonen i det norske havområdet. ( Within the present screening project concentration levels of a broad range of inorganic and organic environmental contaminants in seabrid eggs of the common eider, shag and herring gull collected at the islands Sklinna and Røst were targeted for analysis ranging from metals, organotin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and metabolites, chlorinated pesticides and other pesticides, per-and polyfluoroalkylated substances, declorane plus, octachlorostyrene, phosphororganic and brominated flame retardants, bromo- and alkylphenols, siloxanes and phthalates. In total 201 different chemical compounds were analysed, whereas 53 single compounds have not been detected over the limit of detection. Additionally other parameters as stable isotopes of N and C and lipid content were investigated. The purpose of this report is to provide an updated assessment of pollution present within the marine environment in Norway.)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Numerous experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies show that exposure to environmental contaminants may disrupt endocrine and metabolic functions of our organism. This would contribute to the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders such as nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, characterized by an excessive accumulation of triglycerides in the liver, which may lead to more severe forms of NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases) such as inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this work, in vivo studies have highlighted that chronic exposure to the xenoestrogen BPA, widely used in plastic food packaging industry, affects hepatic energy metabolism. It promotes the storage of triglycerides and cholesterol ester in the liver, in association with the induction of the hepatic transcriptome, more particularly of genes involved in lipid, carbohydrates and cholesterol synthesis. These effects, which could contribute to promote hepatic steatosis, follow an inverted U shape non-monotonic dose-response curve and were observed below the reference dose in regulatory toxicology: the tolerable daily intake. These results strengthen the idea that BPA act as a metabolic disruptor, particularly at low doses. Nuclear receptors are targets through which metabolic disruptors may influence gene expression. Recent studies showed that the nuclear receptors CAR (Constitutive Receptor Androstane) and PXR (Pregnane X Receptor), initially identified as key receptors of the detoxification process, are also involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. We identified the gene coding for adiponutrin/PNPLA3 (Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing) as a new target of these xenosensors. We have shown with transgenic animal models and with hepatocyte cell lines that the CAR and PXR receptors regulate the Pnpla3 gene expression. This protein has a central role in hepatic lipid metabolism through its dual transacylase and lipase activity. In human, a variant of the Pnpla3 (SNP I148M) gene has been identified as a new marker of hepatic steatosis and is associated with an increased risk of NAFLD. Since the xenosensors CAR and PXR are known to be activated by many drugs and environmental pollutants, our results highlight the risk of a development of hepatic steatosis after their activation. Taken together, these results highlight the risk of metabolic disruptions after exposure to various environmental contaminants such as endocrine disruptors and CAR activators. RÉSUMÉ De nombreuses études expérimentales, cliniques et épidémiologiques récentes montrent que l’exposition à des contaminants de notre environnement pourrait perturber les fonctions métaboliques et endocriniennes des organismes. Ceci contribuerait au développement de l'obésité et des pathologies métaboliques associées telles que la stéatose hépatique non alcoolique, caractérisée par une accumulation massive de triglycérides dans le foie, et qui est susceptible d’évoluer vers des pathologies plus sévères (inflammation, fibrose, cirrhose, carcinome hépatocellulaire), regroupées sous le terme de NAFLD (Non- Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases). Nos études réalisées chez le rongeur nous ont permis de mettre en évidence un impact sur le métabolisme hépatique suite à une exposition chronique au Bisphénol A (BPA), un contaminant oestrogéno-mimétique largement exploité dans l’industrie des emballages alimentaires plastiques. Il modifie l’expression des gènes impliqués dans la synthèse des lipides, des glucides et du cholestérol et favorise l’accumulation de triglycérides et d’esters de cholestérol au niveau hépatique. Ces effets, qui pourraient contribuer à l’émergence de la stéatose hépatique, ont été observés en deçà de la dose de référence en toxicologie réglementaire (la dose journalière admissible) et suivent une courbe dose-réponse non monotone en U inversé. Ces résultats renforcent l’idée que le BPA est un perturbateur métabolique, surtout lors d’expositions à faibles doses. Les récepteurs nucléaires représentent des cibles potentielles des perturbateurs métaboliques. Plusieurs études récentes montrent que les récepteurs nucléaires CAR (Constitutive Androstane Receptor) et PXR (Pregnane X Receptor), initialement identifiés comme des récepteurs clés du système de détoxification, sont également impliqués dans la régulation du métabolisme énergétique. Nos travaux ont permis d’identifier une nouvelle cible de ces xénosenseurs : le gène codant pour l’adiponutrine/PNPLA3 (Patatinlike phospholipase domain-containing). Nous avons montré, in vivo et sur des lignées d'hépatocytes en culture, que les récepteurs CAR et PXR régulent l’expression du gène Pnpla3. Cette protéine présente une activité à la fois transacylase et lipase qui lui confère un rôle central dans la régulation du métabolisme lipidique hépatique. Chez l’Homme, un variant du gène Pnpla3 (SNP I148M) a été identifié comme un nouveau marqueur de la stéatose hépatique et est associé à un risque accru de développement de NAFLD. Les xénosenseurs CAR et PXR étant activés par de nombreux médicaments et polluants environnementaux, nos résultats mettent en exergue le risque de développement de stéatoses hépatiques suite à leur activation. L’ensemble de ces résultats renforce l’idée d’un risque de développement de pathologies métaboliques suite à l’exposition à différents contaminants environnementaux, qu’il s’agisse de perturbateurs endocriniens de type métaboliques ou d’activateurs des xénosenseurs CAR et PXR.
    12/2012, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Dr Laila MSELLI-LAKHAL ; Dr Thierry PINEAU