The PWC170: comparison of different stage lengths in 11-16 year olds.
ABSTRACT It is unknown how the estimation of aerobic fitness in children and adolescents compares among physical working capacity (PWC) protocols with different stage lengths. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) compare PWC tests with 2-, 3-, and 6-min stage lengths in youth, and (2) examine the relationship between PWC at a heart rate (HR) of 170 beats min(-1) (PWC170) and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)peak). Fifty youth (31 m, 19 f), aged 11-16 years participated. Each participant visited the laboratory twice and performed three PWC tests (2-, 3-, 6-min stages) on a cycle ergometer. Tests usually consisted of three stages of increasing loads with the goal of reaching HR ≥ 165 beats min(-1). Individual regression lines were created to predict workload at HR = 170 beats ∙ min(-1) for each test. Participants completed two VO(2peak) tests, both running and cycling. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare PWC170 values. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationships between VO(2peak) and power output for different PWC170 stage lengths. The three PWC170 protocols differ significantly; therefore, it is not advisable to directly compare results from different protocols. Furthermore, PWC170 showed moderate associations with VO(2peak), with the 2-min protocol showing the best correlation.
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ABSTRACT: Requirements for cellular homeostasis appear to be unchanged between childhood and maturity. We hypothesized, therefore, that the kinetics of O2 uptake (VO2) in the transition from rest to exercise would be the same in young children as in teenagers. To test this, VO2 and heart rate kinetics from rest to constant work rate (75% of the subject's anaerobic threshold) in 10 children (5 boys and 5 girls) aged 7-10 yr were compared with values found in 10 teenagers (5 boys and 5 girls) aged 15-18 yr. Gas exchange was measured breath to breath, and phases I and II of the transition and phase III (steady-state exercise) were evaluated from multiple transitions in each child. Phase I (the VO2 at 20 s of exercise expressed as percent rest-to-steady-state exercise VO2) was not significantly correlated with age or weight [mean value 42.5 +/- 8.9% (SD)] nor was the phase II time constant for VO2 [mean 27.3 +/- 4.7 (SD) s]. The older girls had significantly slower kinetics than the other children but were also found to be less fit. When the teenagers exercised at work rates well below 75% of their anaerobic threshold, phase I VO2 represented a higher proportion of the overall response, but the phase II kinetics were unchanged. The temporal coupling between the cellular production of mechanical work at the onset of exercise and the uptake of environmental O2 appears to be controlled throughout growth in children.Journal of Applied Physiology 08/1985; 59(1):211-7. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary aim of the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG) is to test an intervention to reduce by half the age-related decline in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in middle school girls. The intervention will be evaluated using a group-randomized trial involving 36 middle schools. The primary endpoint is the mean difference in intensity-weighted minutes (i.e., MET-minutes) of MVPA between intervention and comparison schools assessed using accelerometry. The TAAG study design calls for two cross-sectional samples, one drawn from 6th graders at the beginning of the study and the second drawn from 8th graders at the end of the study following the 2-year implementation of the intervention. An important strength of this design over a cohort design is the consistency with the goals of TAAG, which focus on environmental-level rather than individual-level interventions to produce change. The study design specifies a recruitment rate of 80% and a smaller sample of girls at baseline (n=48 per school) than at follow-up (n=96 per school). A two-stage model will be used to test the primary hypothesis. In the first stage, MET-weighted minutes of MVPA will be regressed on school, time (baseline or follow-up), their interaction, ethnicity and week of data collection. The second stage analysis will be conducted on the 72 adjusted means from the first stage. In the main-effects model, we will regress the follow-up school mean MET-weighted minutes of MVPA on study condition, adjusting for the baseline school mean. The TAAG study addresses an important health behavior, and also advances the field of group-randomized trials through the use of a study design and analysis plan tailored to serve the main study hypothesis.Contemporary Clinical Trials 05/2005; 26(2):223-33. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pulmonary oxygen uptake (pVO2) kinetic response at the onset of exercise provides a noninvasive window into the metabolic activity of the muscle and a valuable means of increasing our understanding of developmental muscle metabolism. However, to date only limited research has been devoted to investigating the pVO2 kinetic response during exercise in children and adolescents. From the rigorous studies that have been conducted, both age- and sex-related differences have been identified. Specifically, children display a faster exponential rise in the phase II pVO2 kinetics, which are purported to reflect the rise in muscle O2 consumption, during moderate, heavy and very heavy intensity exercise compared with adults. Furthermore, for heavy and very heavy exercise, the O2 cost of exercise is higher for the exponential phase and the magnitude of the pVO2 slow component is smaller in young children. Sex-related differences have been identified during heavy, but not moderate exercise, with prepubertal boys displaying a faster exponential phase II pVO2 kinetic response and a smaller pVO2 slow component compared with prepubertal girls. The mechanisms underlying these differences are currently poorly understood, and form the basis for future research in this area. However, it is hypothesized that an age-related modulation of the muscle phosphate feedback controllers to signal an increased rate of oxidative phosphorylation and/or altered muscle fiber type recruitment strategies have the potential to play an important role. Overall, the data support the view that at the onset of exercise children have an enhanced potential for oxidative metabolism in the myocyte compared with adults.Pediatric exercise science 06/2009; 21(2):130-47. · 1.57 Impact Factor