Momentary Affect Surrounding Loss of Control and Overeating in Obese Adults With and Without Binge Eating Disorder

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 09/2011; 20(6):1206-11. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2011.286
Source: PubMed


Research suggests that loss of control (LOC) while eating (the sense that one cannot control what or how much one is eating) is a more salient feature of binge eating than the amount of food consumed. This study examined the unique contributions of LOC and episode size to negative affect surrounding eating episodes in binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Twenty-two obese adults with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) BED completed daily records of eating patterns and mood using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Linear mixed modeling revealed that across groups, greater premeal self-reported LOC was associated with higher premeal negative affect independent of episode size. For individuals with BED, greater premeal self-reported LOC was associated with higher postmeal negative affect, regardless of the amount of food eaten, whereas for obese controls, the combination of LOC and consumption of large amounts of food was associated with lower postmeal negative affect. Results indicate that LOC, but not the quantity of food consumed, is associated with momentary distress related to aberrant eating in BED. Findings also highlight the need for further research investigating the emotional context surrounding aberrant eating in obese individuals without BED.

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Available from: Li Cao, Sep 12, 2014
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    • "Body dissatisfaction, elevated depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and ruminative tendencies during early adolescence more consistently predict the onset and persistence of LOC eating in late adolescence and young adulthood (Stice et al. 2002; Nolen-Hoeksema et al. 2007; Goldschmidt et al. 2014a–c). While adolescent dieting and extreme weight control behaviors also predict LOC eating patterns (Haines & Neumark-Sztainer, 2006; Keel & Forney, 2013), negative affect may be more salient when both constructs are considered together (Goldschmidt et al. 2012a, b). Overall, these data (see Supplementary Table S3) suggest that the NVS alone is insufficient to characterize LOC eating, and identify adolescence as a potential sensitive period for the increasing influence of NVS disturbances on LOC eating. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is a robust behavioral precursor to binge-type eating disorders. Elucidating precursors to LOC eating and binge-type eating disorders may refine developmental risk models of eating disorders and inform interventions. We review evidence within constructs of the Negative Valence Systems (NVS) domain, as specified by the Research Domain Criteria framework. Based on published studies, we propose an integrated NVS model of binge-type eating-disorder risk. Data implicate altered corticolimbic functioning, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and self-reported negative affect as possible risk factors. However, neuroimaging and physiological data in children and adolescents are sparse, and most prospective studies are limited to self-report measures. We discuss a broad NVS framework for conceptualizing early risk for binge-type eating disorders. Future neural and behavioral research on the developmental trajectory of LOC and binge-type eating disorders is required.
    Psychological Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1017/S003329171500104X · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    • "Binge eating not only involves eating a large amount of food in a short period of time, but is also accompanied by a sense of a loss of control over eating (American Psychiatric Association , 2013). Binge eating episodes are often associated with negative affect and are triggered by emotional stressors (Goldschmidt et al., 2012; Haedt-Matt and Keel, 2011; Hilbert and Tuschen-Caffier, 2007). Stress reactivity, attention, and mood are modulated, in part, by brain norepinephrine (NE) (Hamon and Blier, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2week; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30min; twice a week; 8weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 08/2014; 125. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2014.08.003 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    • "The study found that greater LOC was associated with greater pre-meal negative affect and post-meal negative affect for individuals with BED only, regardless of the amount of food consumed during a meal (Goldschmidt et al., 2012). Although these two studies (Goldschmidt et al., 2012; Mitchell et al., 2012) assessed LOC severity on a Likert-type scale and provided support for the clinical utility of a dimensional measure of LOC, the single item scale does not appear to capture the potential heterogeneity of the LOC construct. Given that LOC is a central diagnostic and clinical feature of BED, BN, and AN, and there is no comprehensive, validated self-report measure of LOC, we created the Eating Loss of Control Scale (ELOCS). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent objective bulimic episodes (OBE) are a defining diagnostic characteristic of binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). OBEs are characterized by experiencing loss of control (LOC) while eating an unusually large quantity of food. Despite nosological importance and complex heterogeneity across patients, measurement of LOC has been assessed dichotomously (present/absent). This study describes the development and initial validation of the Eating Loss of Control Scale (ELOCS), a self-report questionnaire that examines the complexity of the LOC construct. Participants were 168 obese treatment-seeking individuals with BED who completed the Eating Disorder Examination interview and self-report measures. Participants rated their LOC-related feelings or behaviors on continuous Likert-type scales and reported the number of LOC episodes in the past 28 days. Principal component analysis identified a single-factor, 18-item scale, which demonstrated good internal reliability (α = .90). Frequency of LOC episodes was significantly correlated with frequency of OBEs and subjective bulimic episodes. The ELOCS demonstrated good convergent validity and was significantly correlated with greater eating pathology, greater emotion dysregulation, greater depression, and lower self-control but not with body mass index. The findings suggest that the ELOCS is a valid self-report questionnaire that may provide important clinical information regarding experiences of LOC in obese persons with BED. Future research should examine the ELOCS in other eating disorders and nonclinical samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 11/2013; 26(1). DOI:10.1037/a0034729 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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