The immunologic outcome of enhanced function of mouse liver lymphocytes and Kupffer cells by high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, National Defense Medical College and §Division of Traumatology, National Defense Medical College Research Institute, Tokorozawa, Japan.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.) (Impact Factor: 2.87). 09/2011; 36(5):484-93. DOI: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e31822dc6e4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dietary lipids/cholesterol may modulate liver immune function. We have recently found that mouse F4/80 Kupffer cells are classified into phagocytic CD68 Kupffer cells and cytokine-producing CD11b Kupffer cells. We here investigate how a high-fat and/or high-cholesterol diet affects innate immune liver mononuclear cells. For 4 weeks, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD), a high-cholesterol diet (HCD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a control diet (CD). High-fat and high-cholesterol diet and HCD increased liver cholesterol levels; serum cholesterol levels increased in HFCD and HFD mice but not in HCD mice. The increased proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, downregulated NK1.1 expression of natural killer T cells, and enhanced CD69 and IL-12 receptor β mRNA expression of liver lymphocytes indicate the activation of them by HFCD. IL-12 production from Kupffer cells and interferon γ production from NK/natural killer T cells activated by LPS and/or IL-12 both increased. IL-12 pretreatment more effectively improved the survival of HFCD mice relative to the survival of CD mice upon injections of liver metastatic EL-4 cells. In contrast, HFCD mouse survival decreased after LPS injection and generalized Shwartzman reaction. Consistently in HFCD mice, Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA expression of whole Kupffer cells was upregulated, and CD11b Kupffer cells proportionally increased. Although the proportion of CD68 Kupffer cells decreased in HFCD mice, phagocytic activity of them was enhanced. Mice fed with HCD rather than those fed with HFD showed features closer to HFCD mice. Thus, enhanced function of mouse liver mononuclear cells is likely dependent on the liver cholesterol level, rather than the liver triglyceride level.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synthetic C-reactive protein (CRP) rescues mice from lethal endotoxin shock or bacterial infection by suppressing tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), but in turn, enhances Kupffer cell phagocytic activity. We herein assessed the influence of CRP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). When human PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with penicillin-treated Streptococcus pyogenes, bacterial DNA motifs and lipopolysaccharide with or without synthetic CRP, CRP suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-12, but not that of IFN-γ. This was also the case for the in vitro Shwartzman reaction induced in PBMCs. CRP also decreased high-mobility group box 1 production from macrophages, which is crucial in the later phase of endotoxin/septic shock. However, CRP upregulated the perforin expression by CD56(+) NK cells and increased their antitumor cytotoxicity. CRP may thus be a potent immunomodulatory factor in the human immune system, suggesting its therapeutic potential for use against human septic shock.
    Inflammation 02/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of mild steatotic liver on ischemia-reperfusion injury by focusing on Kupffer cells (KCs) and platelets. Wistar rats were divided into a normal liver group (N group) and a mild steatotic liver group (S group) induced by feeding a choline-deficient diet for 2 wk. Both groups were subjected to 20 min of warm ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The number of labeled KCs and platelets in sinusoids and the blood perfusion in sinusoids were observed by intravital microscopy (IVM), which was performed at 30, 60 and 120 min after reperfusion. To evaluate serum alanine aminotransferase as a marker of liver deterioration, blood samples were taken at the same time as IVM. In the S group, the number of platelets adhering to KCs decreased significantly compared with the N group (120 after reperfusion; 2.9 ± 1.1 cells/acinus vs 4.8 ± 1.2 cells/acinus, P < 0.01). The number of KCs in sinusoids was significantly less in the S group than in the N group throughout the observation periods (before ischemia, 19.6 ± 3.3 cells/acinus vs 28.2 ± 4.1 cells/acinus, P < 0.01 and 120 min after reperfusion, 29.0 ± 4.3 cells/acinus vs 40.2 ± 3.3 cells/acinus, P < 0.01). The blood perfusion of sinusoids 120 min after reperfusion was maintained in the S group more than in the N group. Furthermore, elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase was lower in the S group than in the N group 120 min after reperfusion (99.7 ± 19.8 IU/L vs 166.3 ± 61.1 IU/L, P = 0.041), and histological impairment of hepatocyte structure was prevented in the S group. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in mild steatotic liver was attenuated compared with normal liver due to the decreased number of KCs and the reduction of the KC-platelet interaction.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; 19(9):1396-404. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that F4/80+ Kupffer cells are subclassified into CD68+ Kupffer cells with phagocytic and ROS producing capacity, and CD11b+ Kupffer cells with cytokine-producing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury is a well-known chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. In the present study, we investigated the immunological role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced hepatitis in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of the liver and the flow cytometry of the liver mononuclear cells showed that clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment greatly decreased the spindle-shaped F4/80+ or CD68+ cells, while the oval-shaped F4/80+ CD11b+ cells increased. Notably, severe hepatic injury induced by CCl4 was further aggravated by c-lipo-pretreatment. The population of CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages dramatically increased 24 hour (h) after CCl4 administration, especially in c-lipo-pretreated mice. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells expressed intracellular TNF and surface Fas-ligand (FasL). Furthermore, anti-TNF Ab pretreatment (which decreased the FasL expression of CD11b+ Kupffer cells), anti-FasL Ab pretreatment or gld/gld mice attenuated the liver injury induced by CCl4. CD1d-/- mouse and cell depletion experiments showed that NKT cells and NK cells were not involved in the hepatic injury. The adoptive transfer and cytotoxic assay against primary cultured hepatocytes confirmed the role of CD11b+ Kupffer cells in CCl4-induced hepatitis. Interestingly, the serum MCP-1 level rapidly increased and peaked at six h after c-lipo pretreatment, suggesting that the MCP-1 produced by c-lipo-phagocytized CD68+ Kupffer cells may recruit CD11b+ macrophages from the periphery and bone marrow. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells producing TNF and FasL thus play a pivotal role in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92515. · 3.73 Impact Factor