The immunologic outcome of enhanced function of mouse liver lymphocytes and Kupffer cells by high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.
ABSTRACT Dietary lipids/cholesterol may modulate liver immune function. We have recently found that mouse F4/80 Kupffer cells are classified into phagocytic CD68 Kupffer cells and cytokine-producing CD11b Kupffer cells. We here investigate how a high-fat and/or high-cholesterol diet affects innate immune liver mononuclear cells. For 4 weeks, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD), a high-cholesterol diet (HCD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a control diet (CD). High-fat and high-cholesterol diet and HCD increased liver cholesterol levels; serum cholesterol levels increased in HFCD and HFD mice but not in HCD mice. The increased proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, downregulated NK1.1 expression of natural killer T cells, and enhanced CD69 and IL-12 receptor β mRNA expression of liver lymphocytes indicate the activation of them by HFCD. IL-12 production from Kupffer cells and interferon γ production from NK/natural killer T cells activated by LPS and/or IL-12 both increased. IL-12 pretreatment more effectively improved the survival of HFCD mice relative to the survival of CD mice upon injections of liver metastatic EL-4 cells. In contrast, HFCD mouse survival decreased after LPS injection and generalized Shwartzman reaction. Consistently in HFCD mice, Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA expression of whole Kupffer cells was upregulated, and CD11b Kupffer cells proportionally increased. Although the proportion of CD68 Kupffer cells decreased in HFCD mice, phagocytic activity of them was enhanced. Mice fed with HCD rather than those fed with HFD showed features closer to HFCD mice. Thus, enhanced function of mouse liver mononuclear cells is likely dependent on the liver cholesterol level, rather than the liver triglyceride level.
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that F4/80+ Kupffer cells are subclassified into CD68+ Kupffer cells with phagocytic and ROS producing capacity, and CD11b+ Kupffer cells with cytokine-producing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury is a well-known chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. In the present study, we investigated the immunological role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced hepatitis in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of the liver and the flow cytometry of the liver mononuclear cells showed that clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment greatly decreased the spindle-shaped F4/80+ or CD68+ cells, while the oval-shaped F4/80+ CD11b+ cells increased. Notably, severe hepatic injury induced by CCl4 was further aggravated by c-lipo-pretreatment. The population of CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages dramatically increased 24 hour (h) after CCl4 administration, especially in c-lipo-pretreated mice. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells expressed intracellular TNF and surface Fas-ligand (FasL). Furthermore, anti-TNF Ab pretreatment (which decreased the FasL expression of CD11b+ Kupffer cells), anti-FasL Ab pretreatment or gld/gld mice attenuated the liver injury induced by CCl4. CD1d-/- mouse and cell depletion experiments showed that NKT cells and NK cells were not involved in the hepatic injury. The adoptive transfer and cytotoxic assay against primary cultured hepatocytes confirmed the role of CD11b+ Kupffer cells in CCl4-induced hepatitis. Interestingly, the serum MCP-1 level rapidly increased and peaked at six h after c-lipo pretreatment, suggesting that the MCP-1 produced by c-lipo-phagocytized CD68+ Kupffer cells may recruit CD11b+ macrophages from the periphery and bone marrow. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells producing TNF and FasL thus play a pivotal role in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92515. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81949. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims Dietary fats have been shown to promote the translocation of bacterial endotoxins from the gut into circulation, which may induce systemic inflammation and modulate the inflammatory response of circulating immune cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the postprandial milieu on inflammation and the inflammatory response of antigen presenting cells in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Materials and methods Eleven patients with T1D and eleven nondiabetic controls were recruited as part of the FinnDiane study and given two fatty meals during 1 day. Cytokine responses in monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) as well as serum lipopolysaccharide activity levels, triglyceride concentrations and cytokine concentrations were measured from fasting and postprandial blood samples. Results Postprandially, patients with T1D and controls showed significant increases in eight inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-α, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-12 and MIP-1β) without concomitant increase in serum LPS activity. Serum cytokine production was similar in both groups. No postprandial change was seen in the IL-6, TNF-α or IL-1β production of mDCs or monocytes. At fasting, diabetic mDCs exhibited higher LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-1β production than controls. Conclusions Acute high-fat meals increase circulating cytokines but have no effect on serum lipopolysaccharide activity levels or cytokine production in circulating mDCs or monocytes. Our results suggest that postprandial increase in serum cytokine levels is neither mediated by circulating endotoxins nor the activation of circulating innate cells. The production of high-fat meal-induced inflammatory markers is most likely regulated at the tissue level.Acta Diabetologica 09/2014; · 3.68 Impact Factor