The immunologic outcome of enhanced function of mouse liver lymphocytes and Kupffer cells by high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.
ABSTRACT Dietary lipids/cholesterol may modulate liver immune function. We have recently found that mouse F4/80 Kupffer cells are classified into phagocytic CD68 Kupffer cells and cytokine-producing CD11b Kupffer cells. We here investigate how a high-fat and/or high-cholesterol diet affects innate immune liver mononuclear cells. For 4 weeks, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD), a high-cholesterol diet (HCD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a control diet (CD). High-fat and high-cholesterol diet and HCD increased liver cholesterol levels; serum cholesterol levels increased in HFCD and HFD mice but not in HCD mice. The increased proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, downregulated NK1.1 expression of natural killer T cells, and enhanced CD69 and IL-12 receptor β mRNA expression of liver lymphocytes indicate the activation of them by HFCD. IL-12 production from Kupffer cells and interferon γ production from NK/natural killer T cells activated by LPS and/or IL-12 both increased. IL-12 pretreatment more effectively improved the survival of HFCD mice relative to the survival of CD mice upon injections of liver metastatic EL-4 cells. In contrast, HFCD mouse survival decreased after LPS injection and generalized Shwartzman reaction. Consistently in HFCD mice, Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA expression of whole Kupffer cells was upregulated, and CD11b Kupffer cells proportionally increased. Although the proportion of CD68 Kupffer cells decreased in HFCD mice, phagocytic activity of them was enhanced. Mice fed with HCD rather than those fed with HFD showed features closer to HFCD mice. Thus, enhanced function of mouse liver mononuclear cells is likely dependent on the liver cholesterol level, rather than the liver triglyceride level.
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ABSTRACT: Synthetic C-reactive protein (CRP) rescues mice from lethal endotoxin shock or bacterial infection by suppressing tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), but in turn, enhances Kupffer cell phagocytic activity. We herein assessed the influence of CRP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). When human PBMCs were stimulated in vitro with penicillin-treated Streptococcus pyogenes, bacterial DNA motifs and lipopolysaccharide with or without synthetic CRP, CRP suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-12, but not that of IFN-γ. This was also the case for the in vitro Shwartzman reaction induced in PBMCs. CRP also decreased high-mobility group box 1 production from macrophages, which is crucial in the later phase of endotoxin/septic shock. However, CRP upregulated the perforin expression by CD56(+) NK cells and increased their antitumor cytotoxicity. CRP may thus be a potent immunomodulatory factor in the human immune system, suggesting its therapeutic potential for use against human septic shock.Inflammation 02/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that F4/80+ Kupffer cells are subclassified into CD68+ Kupffer cells with phagocytic and ROS producing capacity, and CD11b+ Kupffer cells with cytokine-producing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury is a well-known chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. In the present study, we investigated the immunological role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced hepatitis in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of the liver and the flow cytometry of the liver mononuclear cells showed that clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment greatly decreased the spindle-shaped F4/80+ or CD68+ cells, while the oval-shaped F4/80+ CD11b+ cells increased. Notably, severe hepatic injury induced by CCl4 was further aggravated by c-lipo-pretreatment. The population of CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages dramatically increased 24 hour (h) after CCl4 administration, especially in c-lipo-pretreated mice. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells expressed intracellular TNF and surface Fas-ligand (FasL). Furthermore, anti-TNF Ab pretreatment (which decreased the FasL expression of CD11b+ Kupffer cells), anti-FasL Ab pretreatment or gld/gld mice attenuated the liver injury induced by CCl4. CD1d-/- mouse and cell depletion experiments showed that NKT cells and NK cells were not involved in the hepatic injury. The adoptive transfer and cytotoxic assay against primary cultured hepatocytes confirmed the role of CD11b+ Kupffer cells in CCl4-induced hepatitis. Interestingly, the serum MCP-1 level rapidly increased and peaked at six h after c-lipo pretreatment, suggesting that the MCP-1 produced by c-lipo-phagocytized CD68+ Kupffer cells may recruit CD11b+ macrophages from the periphery and bone marrow. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells producing TNF and FasL thus play a pivotal role in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92515. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81949. · 3.53 Impact Factor