Functional promoter rs2868371 variant of HSPB1 associates with radiation-induced esophageal toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with radio(chemo)therapy.
ABSTRACT We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) gene and the risk of radiation-induced esophageal toxicity (RIET) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
The experimental dataset comprised 120 NSCLC patients who were treated with radio(chemo)therapy between 2005 and 2009, when novel radiation techniques were implemented at MD Anderson. The validation dataset comprised 181 NSCLC patients treated between 1998 and 2004. We genotyped two SNPs of the HSPB1 gene (rs2868370 and rs2868371) by TaqMan assay.
Univariate and multivariate analyses of the experimental dataset showed that the CG/GG genotypes of HSPB1 rs2868371 were associated with significantly lower risk of grade ⩾3 RIET than the CC genotype (univariate hazard ratio [HR] 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.91; P=0.033; multivariate HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.97; P=0.045). This difference in risk was replicated in the validation cohort despite the different radiation techniques used during that period.
The CG/GG genotypes of HSPB1 rs2868371 were associated with lower risk of RIET, compared with the CC genotype in patients with NSCLC treated with radio(chemo)therapy. This finding should be validated in large multi-institutional prospective trials.
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ABSTRACT: Multi-purpose plants are frequently protected with mechanical safety devices like safety valves or bursting disks. Due to many changes of recipes it must be checked regularly whether the safety devices are sufficiently sized. But the sizing procedure of individual safety devices can be very tedious. Therefore energy specific relief areas (effective relief area per kW of energy input) have been determined for approx. 60 typical solvents. They are indicated for reactors with safety devices which have a set pressure of 7 bar (abs) or 11 bar (abs). These values are independent of the size of the reactors for vaporizing systems and arbitrary safety valves. The energy specific relief areas allow the minimum required relief area quickly to recalculate if the energy input of the reactor is known. In addition, the application of solvents in multi-purpose plants can be evaluated from a safety point of few.The energy specific relief areas are calculated based on a relief of two-phase gas/liquid mixtures. The data have been determined with the non-equilibrium HNE-DS method, which takes into account the boiling delay of the liquid in the safety device and the slip between gases and liquids. The method is recommended in the international standard ISO 4126 part 10. In addition, practical advice and possible improvements are outlined. The method leads to significantly smaller relief areas than according to the API 520. For multi-purpose plants with available safety devices this method allows for a considerable expansion of the application range of reactors.Journal of Loss Prevention in The Process Industries - J LOSS PREVENT PROC IND. 01/2012;