Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor is Associated With Progressive Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection
ABSTRACT Progressive liver fibrosis is the main predictor of disease outcome in chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. Although the importance of the coagulation cascade has been suggested in liver fibrogenesis, the role of the fibrinolytic pathway is yet unclear.
We evaluated the association of serum levels of the fibrinolysis-associated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) with the severity of liver fibrosis in HCV infection.
suPAR serum levels were assessed in 146 chronically HCV-infected patients of 2 independent cohorts (64 subjects in the screening cohort, 82 in the validation cohort) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated with biopsy-proven histologic stage of liver fibrosis and noninvasive liver fibrosis markers (aspartate transaminase to platelets ratio index score, transient elastography).
suPAR serum levels were strongly associated with the histologic stage of liver fibrosis in both cohorts (P<0.0001). Although mean suPAR levels in patients with F1 and F2 fibrosis were not different from healthy control subjects, they were significantly increased at higher stages of liver fibrosis (F3 and F4, P<0.0001). suPAR values had a high diagnostic specificity and sensitivity to differentiate mild/moderate fibrosis (F1/F2) from severe fibrosis (F3/F4) with an area under curve of 0.774 (P=0.0001) and for the differentiation of noncirrhosis from cirrhosis (F1/F2/F3 vs. F4, area under curve 0.791, P=0.0001). SuPAR serum levels were also strongly correlated to the noninvasive fibrosis markers aspartate transaminase to platelets ratio index score (r=0.52) and transient elastography (r=0.44, both P<0.0001).
Serum suPAR levels were robust markers of liver fibrosis in 2 cohorts with a comparable diagnostic accuracy for prediction of severe liver fibrosis as established noninvasive marker.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is the soluble form of the membrane-bound receptor (uPAR) expressed predominantly on various immune cells. Elevated plasma suPAR concentration is associated with increased mortality in various patient groups, and it is speculated that suPAR is a low-grade inflammation marker reflecting on disease severity. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine if the plasma concentration of suPAR is associated with admission time, re-admission, disease severity/Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, and mortality. Methods We included 543 patients with various diseases from a Danish Acute Medical Unit during a two month period. A triage unit ensured that only medical patients were admitted to the Acute Medical Unit. SuPAR was measured on plasma samples drawn upon admission. Patients were followed-up for three months after inclusion by their unique civil registry number and using Danish registries to determine admission times, readmissions, International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnoses, and mortality. Statistical analysis was used to determine suPAR's association with these endpoints. Results Increased suPAR was significantly associated with 90-day mortality (4.87 ng/ml in survivors versus 7.29 ng/ml in non-survivors, P < 0.0001), higher Charlson Score (P < 0.0001), and longer admission time (P < 0.0001), but not with readmissions. The association with mortality remained when adjusting for age, sex, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Charlson Score. Furthermore, among the various Charlson Score disease groups, suPAR was significantly higher in those with diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver disease compared to those without comorbidities. Conclusions SuPAR is a marker of disease severity, admission time, and risk of mortality in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with a variety of diseases. The independent value of suPAR suggests it could be of value in prognostic algorithms.Critical care (London, England) 07/2012; 16(4):R130. DOI:10.1186/cc11434
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Patients with decompensated cirrhosis are susceptible to bacterial infections, which are associated with organ failure and a high mortality rate. Reliable biomarkers are needed to identify patients who require intensified treatment. Our objective was to study the regulation and prognostic relevance of elevated concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with advanced cirrhosis. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined the associations between serum and ascitic fluid (AF) suPAR and liver function, bacterial infection, and short-term mortality in 162 consecutive patients with decompensated cirrhosis undergoing diagnostic paracentesis in a tertiary health care center in Germany. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Circulating suPAR levels were increased in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and correlated with the severity of liver dysfunction and systemic inflammation, but were not indicative of bacterial infection. Circulating suPAR levels > 14.4 ng/ml predicted 28-day mortality, even after adjustment for liver function and confounders (HR = 3.05 [1.35-6.90]; p=0.0076) equal to the MELD-score (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.61-0.81; p<0.001). Cut-off levels derived from cohorts without liver disease were not applicable due to the low specificity. AF suPAR levels were elevated during spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), but not during episodes in which bacteria or bacterial DNA was translocated into the ascites. AF suPAR levels correlated poorly with systemic suPAR, but were associated with a more severe course of SBP and a worse outcome. In vitro experiments revealed that monocytes, and to a lesser extent neutrophils, secrete suPAR after Toll-like-receptor ligation, which led to rapid urokinase plasminogen activator receptor cleavage followed by increased synthesis. CONCLUSION: Blood and ascitic suPAR levels provide distinct, but relevant prognostic information on the severity of complications in patients with end-stage liver disease. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.Journal of Internal Medicine 02/2013; 274(1). DOI:10.1111/joim.12054 · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liver biopsy has remained the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C; even though, it has a low but non-negligible rate of both false negative and complications. Several authors have proposed noninvasive tools to diagnose cirrhosis. But none of them showed complete concordance with liver biopsy. To devise a score based on noninvasive routine parameters that discriminate between patients with a high risk, and those with a low risk of cirrhosis among patients with chronic hepatitis C without performing liver biopsy, and to compare this score with other ones using routine parameters devoted to this aim. We reviewed the charts of patients with chronic hepatitis C who performed a liver biopsy between 2000 and 2004. Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of cirrhosis. An independent group of patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted for a liver biopsy between 2007 and 2012 constituted the validation set. We enrolled 249 patients who had complete laboratoristic data, and sufficient liver tissue for fibrosis staging. Age, AST, prothrombin activity, and platelets were identified as independent predictors of histological cirrhosis. We categorized these variables, and devised a novel score called CISCUN (Cirrhosis Score University of Naples), giving one point to each of the following predictors: age > 40 years; AST > 2 upper normal values; platelet count < 160.000/mmc; prothrombin activity < 100%. Cirrhosis rate was 2.9% for the 103 patients with a CISCUN = 0 or 1, 23.4% for the 124 patients with a CISCUN of 2 or 3, and 86.4% for the 22 patients with a CISCUN = 4. These results were confirmed in the independent validation group of 285 patients with similar characteristics. Patients with chronic hepatitis C and with a CISCUN ≤ 1 had a very low rate of cirrhosis while those with a CISCUN = 4 had a high risk of cirrhosis. Patients with CISCUN = 2 or 3 had an intermediate rate of cirrhosis, and therefore needed to perform a liver biopsy to receive a reliable diagnosis.Hepatitis Monthly 05/2013; 13(5):e8352. DOI:10.5812/hepatmon.8352 · 1.80 Impact Factor