A prospective randomized study comparing open versus laparoscopy-assisted D2 radical gastrectomy in advanced gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT In recent years, many clinical studies have confirmed the value of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) in gastric cancer surgery, especially in early stages. But the safety and oncologic adequacy of laparoscopy-assisted D2 radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer are still in debate. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to compare open versus laparoscopy-assisted D2 radical gastrectomy in advanced gastric cancer.
For this study, 123 patients who had been diagnosed endoscopically with gastric cancer were randomly assigned to either LAG (n = 61) or open gastrectomy (OG) (n = 62) which ran from March 2008 to December 2009. Clinical characteristics, operative findings, postoperative recovery, morbidity, pathological report and survival rate were compared. D2 lymph node dissection was performed in 49 patients in the LAG group and 47 patients in the OG group with advanced gastric cancer. We adopt sub-group analysis in this paper.
The clinical characteristics of patients in the LAG and OG groups who were in the advanced stage, included age, sex, BMI and concurrent illness, and their ECOG scores were well matched. Operative findings, postoperative recovery, morbidity, pathological findings including tumor location, depth of invasion, TNM stage, histological grade and surgical extension in the two groups were also similar. Compared to the OG group, the mean operating time was significantly longer for the LAG group (267.88 ± 54.284 min in the LAG group vs. 182.02 ± 41.016 min in the OG group, p = 6.383 × 10(-13)); the mean number of days when body temperature exceeded 37°C was significantly shorter in the LAG group (p = 6.34 × 10(-8)). There were no postoperative deaths in both the groups. The postoperative morbidity rate was 12.24% in the LAG group and 19.15% in the OG group with no significant difference (p = 0.357). However, pulmonary infection was observed more frequently in the OG group (p = 0.038). After a mean follow-up of 22.1354 months (from 4 to 36 months), 14 and 15 patients died of gastric cancer in the LAG and OG groups, respectively. Two and one patient died of nongastric cancer in the LAG and OG groups, respectively. The overall survival rates were 67.1% and 53.8% in the LAG and OG groups, respectively. The estimated mean survival time was 29.387 months in the LAG group and 28.978 months in the OG group. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall survival rate for patients in both groups - LAG and OG (log-rank test, p = 0.911, Tarone Ware test, p = 0.994, and Breslow test, p = 0. 961).
LAG with D2 lymph node dissection is a safe and feasible procedure with adequate lymphadenectomy, good curability and survival rate for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer.
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ABSTRACT: To conduct a meta-analysis comparing laparoscopic (LGD2) and open D2 gastrectomies (OGD2) for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs comparing LGD2 with OGD2 for AGC treatment, published between 1 January 2000 and 12 January 2013, were identified in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Primary endpoints included operative outcomes (operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and conversion rate), postoperative outcomes (postoperative analgesic consumption, time to first ambulation, time to first flatus, time to first oral intake, postoperative hospital stay length, postoperative morbidity, incidence of reoperation, and postoperative mortality), and oncologic outcomes (the number of lymph nodes harvested, tumor recurrence and metastasis, disease-free rates, and overall survival rates). The Cochrane Collaboration tools and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the quality and risk of bias of RCTs and non-RCTs in the study. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the incidence rate of various postoperative morbidities as well as recurrence and metastasis patterns. A Begg's test was used to evaluate the publication bias. One RCT and 13 non-RCTs totaling 2596 patients were included in the meta-analysis. LGD2 in comparison to OGD2 showed lower intraoperative blood loss [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -137.87 mL, 95%CI: -164.41--111.33; P < 0.01], lower analgesic consumption (WMD = -1.94, 95%CI: -2.50--1.38; P < 0.01), shorter times to first ambulation (WMD = -1.03 d, 95%CI: -1.90--0.16; P < 0.05), flatus (WMD = -0.98 d, 95%CI: -1.30--0.66; P < 0.01), and oral intake (WMD = -0.85 d, 95%CI: -1.67--0.03; P < 0.05), shorter hospitalization (WMD = -3.08 d, 95%CI: -4.38--1.78; P < 0.01), and lower postoperative morbidity (odds ratio = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.61-0.99; P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between LGD2 and OGD2 for the following criteria: reoperation incidence, postoperative mortality, number of harvested lymph nodes, tumor recurrence/metastasis, or three- or five-year disease-free and overall survival rates. However, LGD2 had longer operative times (WMD = 57.06 min, 95%CI: 41.87-72.25; P < 0.01). Although a technically demanding and time-consuming procedure, LGD2 may be safe and effective, and offer some advantages over OGD2 for treatment of locally AGC.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 11/2014; 20(44):16750-64.
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ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer poses a significant public health problem, especially in the Far East, due to its high incidence in these areas. Surgical treatment and guidelines have been markedly different in the West, but nowadays this debate is apparently coming to an end. Laparoscopic surgery has been employed in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer for two decades now, but with controversies about the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy. Despite these difficulties, the apparent advantages of the laparoscopic approach helped its implementation in early stage and distal gastric cancer, with an increase on the uptake for distal gastrectomy for more advanced disease and total gastrectomy. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence about the laparoscopic approach yet. In this review article we present and analyse the current status of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 10/2014; 20(39):14280-14291.
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ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive operative procedures are increasingly being used for treating tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract. While minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has become established as a standard procedure for benign tumors and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) based on current studies, the significance of MIS in the field of gastric cancer is the topic of heated debate. Until now the majority of studies and meta-analyses on gastric cancer have come from Asia and these indicate the advantages of MIS in terms of intraoperative blood loss, minor surgical complications and swifter convalescence although without any benefits in terms of long-term oncological results and quality of life. Unlike in Germany, gastric cancer in Asia with its unchanged high incidence rate, 50 % frequency of early carcinoma and predominantly distal tumor localization is treated at high-volume centres. Due to the proven marginal advantages of MIS over open resection described in the published studies no general recommendation for laparoscopic surgery of gastric cancer can currently be given.07/2014;