The COL5A1 gene, ultra-marathon running performance, and range of motion.

Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
International journal of sports physiology and performance (Impact Factor: 2.25). 07/2011; 6(4):485-96.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endurance running performance is a multifactorial phenotype that is strongly associated with running economy. Sit and reach range of motion (SR ROM) is negatively associated with running economy, suggesting that reduced SR ROM is advantageous for endurance running performance. The COL5A1 gene has been associated with both endurance running performance and SR ROM in separate cohorts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether COL5A1 is associated with ultra-marathon running performance and whether this relationship could be partly explained by prerace SR ROM.
Seventy-two runners (52 male, 20 female) were recruited from the 56 km Two Oceans ultra-marathon and were assessed for prerace SR ROM. The cohort was genotyped for the COL5A1 BstUI restriction fragment length polymorphism, and race times were collected after the event.
Participants with a TT genotype (341 ± 41 min, N = 21) completed the 56 km Two Oceans ultra-marathon significantly (P = 0.014) faster than participants with TC and CC genotypes (365 ± 39 min, N = 50). The COL5A1 genotype and age accounted for 19% of performance variance. When the cohort was divided into performance and flexibility quadrants, the T allele was significantly (P = 0.044) over-represented within the fast and inflexible quadrant.
The COL5A1 genotype was found to be significantly associated with performance in a 56 km ultra-endurance run. This study confirms previous findings and it furthers our understanding of the relationships among ROM, COL5A1, and endurance running performance. We continue to speculate that the COL5A1 gene alters muscle-tendon stiffness.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sundby, ØH, Gorelick, M. Relationship between functional hamstring:quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runnersThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE), functional hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratios (f-H:Q) and flexibility among female runners. Seven highly trained female (HT) runners (age of 25.7 ± 4.7 yrs, VO2peak of 62.0 ± 4.8 mL·kg·min) and eleven recreational (REC) female runners (age of 28.8 ± 5.6 yrs, VO2peak of 49.2 ± 4.6 mL·kg·min) were measured for maximal aerobic power (VO2peak), RE, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), f-H:Q (Hecc:Qcon and Hcon:Qecc), and sit-and-reach hamstring/trunk flexibility. On two separate days, RE was measured on a treadmill at 1% grade at two velocities (160.9 m·min and 201.2 m·min) for 6-min each, and isokinetic knee strength was measured at three angular velocities (60°·sec, 120°·sec, and 180°·sec) for both concentric and eccentric muscle actions. The unpaired t-tests showed a consistent trend towards higher f-H:Q ratios at all angular velocities among the HT runners. HT runners had significantly higher Hecc:Qcon at 120°·sec (p ≤ 0.05) and 180°·sec (p ≤ 0.05). Whole group correlations demonstrated a significant correlation between Hcon:Qecc at 180°·sec and RE (mL·kg·km) at 201.2 m·min (R = -0.48, p ≤ 0.05). No significant relationships were found between flexibility, or hamstring and quadriceps peak torque (N·m) and RE (p > 0.05). This cross-sectional analysis suggests that higher f-H:Q torque ratios, and not muscle strength per se, are associated with a lower metabolic cost of running. Therefore, runners should consider implementing hamstring exercises to improve their f-H:Q ratios.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 01/2014; · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gene variants encoding for proteins involved in homeostatic processes within tendons may influence its material and mechanical properties in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between one such gene variant, gene encoding collagen type V alpha 1 chain (COL5A1) rs12722, and patellar tendon dimensions and mechanical properties in vivo. Eighty-four recreationally active, Caucasian, men and women, aged 18-39, with no history of injuries to the knee and a body mass index between 18.5 and 30 were recruited. Women were not recruited if they were pregnant or using any form of hormone-based contraception. The COL5A1 rs12722 genotype was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patellar tendon dimensions (volume) and functional (elastic modulus) properties were assessed in vivo using geometric modelling, isokinetic dynamometry, electromyography and ultrasonography. After adjustments for non-genetic factors, no significant associations were evident between the COL5A1 rs12722 gene variant and either patellar tendon volume (P = 0.933) or elastic modulus (P = 0.206), nor with a calculated Z score that combined these dimensional and functional properties into a composite value (P = 0.647). Similarly, no association was evident when comparing individuals with/without the rare C allele (volume, P = 0.883; elastic modulus, P = 0.129; Z score, P = 0.631). Tendon properties do not seem to be influenced by the COL5A1 rs12722 gene variant. Although the COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism has previously been associated with the risk of tendon pathology, that association is unlikely to be mediated via underlying tendon dimensional and functional properties.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 03/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km•h-1 and 12 km•h-1) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km•h-1 (p = 0.232) and 12 km•h-1 (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106581. · 3.53 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 4, 2014