Lectin Microarrays: A Powerful Tool for Glycan-Based Biomarker Discovery

Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening (Impact Factor: 1.22). 09/2011; 14(8):711-9. DOI: 10.2174/138620711796504398
Source: PubMed


Cell surfaces, especially mammalian cell surfaces, are heavily coated with complex poly- and oligosaccharides, and these glycans have been implicated in many functions, such as cell-to-cell communication, host-pathogen interactions and cell matrix interactions. Not surprisingly then, the aberrations of glycosylation are usually indicative of the onset of specific diseases, such as cancer. Therefore, glycans are expected to serve as important biomarkers for disease diagnosis and/or prognosis. Recent development of the lectin microarray technology has allowed researchers to profile the glycans in complex biological samples in a high throughput fashion. This relatively new tool is highly suitable for both live cell and cell lysate analyses and has the potential for rapid discovery of glycan-based biomarkers. In this review, we will focus on the basic concepts and the latest advances of lectin microarray technology. We will also emphasize the application of lectin microarrays for biomarker discovery, and then discuss the challenges faced by this technology and potential future directions. Based on the tremendous progress already achieved, it seems apparent that lectin microarrays will soon become an indispensible tool for glycosylation biomarker discovery.

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Available from: Li Cheng, Apr 22, 2015
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    • "To overcome the drawbacks of the traditional lectin based methodologies, combined with the powerful characteristics of microarray format: high-throughput, parallel analysis and miniaturized format, we and others have developed a variety types of lectin microarrays carrying a few to ~100 lectins [17-21]. These lectin microarrays were fabricated on several different functionalized substrate surfaces, such as aldehyde, epbully and NHS derivatized hydrogel. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that cell surface glycans or glycocalyx play important roles in sperm motility, maturation and fertilization. A comprehensive profile of the sperm surface glycans will greatly facilitate both basic research (sperm glycobiology) and clinical studies, such as diagnostics of infertility. As a group of natural glycan binders, lectin is an ideal tool for cell surface glycan profiling. However, because of the lack of effective technology, only a few lectins have been tested for lectin-sperm binding profiles. To address this challenge, we have developed a procedure for high-throughput probing of mammalian sperm with 91 lectins on lectin microarrays. Normal sperm from human, boar, bull, goat and rabbit were collected and analyzed on the lectin microarrays. Positive bindings of a set of ~50 lectins were observed for all the sperm of 5 species, which indicated a wide range of glycans are on the surface of mammalian sperm. Species specific lectin bindings were also observed. Clustering analysis revealed that the distances of the five species according to the lectin binding profiles are consistent with that of the genome sequence based phylogenetic tree except for rabbit. The procedure that we established in this study could be generally applicable for sperm from other species or defect sperm from the same species. We believe the lectin binding profiles of the mammalian sperm that we established in this study are valuable for both basic research and clinical studies.
    Clinical Proteomics 03/2014; 11(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1559-0275-11-10
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    • "Cell surface glycans are highly related to cell-cell communication, host-pathogen interaction, and cell matrix interactions [24]. Tumor invasion is dependent on a loss of intercellular adhesion and transmigration of cells through the basement membrane (BM) as well as the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tumor cells show alterations in their glycosylation patterns when compared to normal cells. Lectins can be used to evaluate these glycocode changes. Chemiluminescence assay is an effective technique for quantitative analysis of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and rapid testing. Objective: To use histochemiluminescence based on lectin conjugated to acridinium ester (AE) for the investigation of glycophenotype changes in cutaneous tumors. Methods: Concanavalin A (Con A), Peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) were conjugated to acridinium ester. Biopsies of cutaneous tumors and normal skin were incubated with the lectins-AE, and chemiluminescence was quantified and expressed as Relative Light Units (RLU). Results. Actinic keratosis (AK), keratoacanthoma (KA), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) showed lower expression of α -D-glucose/mannose and α -L-fucose residues compared to normal tissue. Cutaneous tumors displayed higher expression of Gal- β (1-3)-GalNAc residues than normal tissue. AK and SCC exhibited higher expression of Neu5Ac- α (2,3)Gal residues than normal epidermis. KA and BCC showed equivalent RLU values compared to normal tissue. Conclusions: Lectin histochemiluminescence allowed quantitative assessment of the carbohydrate expression in cutaneous tissues, contributing to eliminate the subjectivity of conventional techniques used in the histopathological diagnosis.
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant glycan structure of serum glycoproteins creates unique patterns in different stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which provides potential glycan biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC. In this study, tandem lectin affinity chromatography using aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was processed to purify both fucosylated and sialylated serum glycoproteins from 27 liver cirrhosis (LC) and 27 early HCC patients, in which 122 glycoproteins were finally screened out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS). Among the 122 proteins identified by LC-MSMS, 8 of them were only identified in HCC serum and another 6 existed only in LC serum. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) was immunoprecipitated from 47 individual patients and blotted by lectins, showing enhanced fucosylation and sialylation in HCC serum than those in LC serum. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for AAL-reactive PON1 was 0.892 with a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 94.7% in differentiating early HCC from LC. Similarly, WGA-reactive PON1 had an AUROC of 0.902 with a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 78.9%. The data indicated that the glycan differences of serum PON1 might serve as potential glycan biomarkers for distinguishing early HCC from LC patients.
    Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 07/2012; 44(9):765-73. DOI:10.1093/abbs/gms055 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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