Effects of subchronic aluminum exposure on the reproductive function in female rats.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on the reproductive function in female rats. Forty female Wistar (5 weeks old) rats, weighing 110-120 g, were divided randomly into four groups. They were orally administrated with 0, 64.18, 128.36, and 256.72 mg aluminum chloride (AlCl(3)) per kilogram body weight in drinking water for 120 days. Levels of Al, estrogen (E(2)), progestogen (P), testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum were measured at the end of experiment. The results showed that levels of E(2), P, FSH, and LH were significantly lower and Al concentration was significantly higher in all three Al-treated groups than those in the control group (GC). The level of T was significantly higher in the low- and medium-dose groups (GL and GM) (P < 0.05) but not in high-dose group (GH) compared with GC. The results suggest that the reproductive function of female rats is inhibited under long-term Al exposure in an Al dose-dependent manner.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous substance encountered both naturally (as the third most abundant element) and intentionally (used in water, foods, pharmaceuticals, and vaccines); it is also present in ambient and occupational airborne particulates. Existing data underscore the importance of Al physical and chemical forms in relation to its uptake, accumulation, and systemic bioavailability. The present review represents a systematic examination of the peer-reviewed literature on the adverse health effects of Al materials published since a previous critical evaluation compiled by Krewski et al. (2007) . Challenges encountered in carrying out the present review reflected the experimental use of different physical and chemical Al forms, different routes of administration, and different target organs in relation to the magnitude, frequency, and duration of exposure. Wide variations in diet can result in Al intakes that are often higher than the World Health Organization provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), which is based on studies with Al citrate. Comparing daily dietary Al exposures on the basis of "total Al"assumes that gastrointestinal bioavailability for all dietary Al forms is equivalent to that for Al citrate, an approach that requires validation. Current occupational exposure limits (OELs) for identical Al substances vary as much as 15-fold. The toxicity of different Al forms depends in large measure on their physical behavior and relative solubility in water. The toxicity of soluble Al forms depends upon the delivered dose of Al(+ 3) to target tissues. Trivalent Al reacts with water to produce bidentate superoxide coordination spheres [Al(O2)(H2O4)(+ 2) and Al(H2O)6 (+ 3)] that after complexation with O2(•-), generate Al superoxides [Al(O2(•))](H2O5)](+ 2). Semireduced AlO2(•) radicals deplete mitochondrial Fe and promote generation of H2O2, O2 (• -) and OH(•). Thus, it is the Al(+ 3)-induced formation of oxygen radicals that accounts for the oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances.Critical Reviews in Toxicology 10/2014; 44(S4):1-80. DOI:10.3109/10408444.2014.934439 · 6.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims This experiment investigated the effects of sub-chronic aluminum chloride (AlCl3) exposure on ovary of rats. Materials and Methods Eighty female Wistar (5 weeks old) rats, weighed 110 ~ 120 g, were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control group (CG), low-dose group (LG, 64 mg/kg BW AlCl3), mid-dose group (MG, 128 mg/kg BW AlCl3) and high-dose group (HG, 256 mg/kg BW AlCl3). The AlCl3 was administered in drinking water for 120 days. The ovarian ultrastructure was observed. The activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Na+-K+-ATPase, Mg2 +-ATPase and Ca2 +-ATPase, the contents of Fe, Cu and Zn, and the protein expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the ovary were determined. Key findings The results showed that the structure of ovary was disrupted, the activities of ALP, ACP, SDH, Na+-K+-ATPase, Mg2 +-ATPase and Ca2 +-ATPase, the contents of Zn, Fe and the protein expression of FSHR and LHR were lowered, and the content of Cu was increased in AlCl3-treated rats than those in control. Significance The results indicate that sub-chronic AlCl3 exposure caused the damage of ovarian structure, the disturbed metabolism of Fe, Zn and Cu and decreased activities of Na+-K+-ATPase, Mg2 +-ATPase and Ca2 +-ATPase in the ovary, which could result in suppressed energy supply in the ovary. A combination of suppression of energy supply and reduction of expression of FSHR and LHR could inhibit ovulation and corpus luteum development, leading to infertility in female rats.Life sciences 03/2014; 100(1). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.01.081 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Aluminium (Al), the most ubiquitous metal in the earth crust, has been shown to reveal a potential metalloestrogenic action. Despite an increasing interest in Al exposure in human, there is essentially no information on its status in the reproduction system. Aim. The present work investigated the content of Al in female endometrial tissue (n = 25) and its association with endometrial thickness and histological image, female age, place of living, history of cigarette smoking and diet. Material and methods. The endometrial samples (n = 25) were obtained during routine procedures. The Al content was determined using microwave induced nitrogen plasma atomic emission spectrometer. The relationships between metal level and histological image, endometrial thickness, female age, place of living, cigarette smoking and diet were investigated. Results. The Al was detected in every analysed sample. Its concentrations varied from 0.9–16.0 μg/kg dry tissue. The lowest Al level was found in atrophic endometrium. The metal content in polyposis, hyperplasia and unaltered tissue was comparable. The study failed to fi nd signifi cant association with the metal content and endometrial thickness, female age, place of living, smoking habits and diet. Conclusion. Human endometrial tissue can contain detectable levels of Al. It, in turn, indicates that endometrium may play a role in systematic accumulation of absorbed Al but also that it may represent an unique route of periodic discharge of this element. Further studies are necessary to elucidate which factors are responsible for the presence of Al in endometrium and what are the possible consequences of its increased content in this tissue.