Effects of subchronic aluminum exposure on the reproductive function in female rats.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on the reproductive function in female rats. Forty female Wistar (5 weeks old) rats, weighing 110-120 g, were divided randomly into four groups. They were orally administrated with 0, 64.18, 128.36, and 256.72 mg aluminum chloride (AlCl(3)) per kilogram body weight in drinking water for 120 days. Levels of Al, estrogen (E(2)), progestogen (P), testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum were measured at the end of experiment. The results showed that levels of E(2), P, FSH, and LH were significantly lower and Al concentration was significantly higher in all three Al-treated groups than those in the control group (GC). The level of T was significantly higher in the low- and medium-dose groups (GL and GM) (P < 0.05) but not in high-dose group (GH) compared with GC. The results suggest that the reproductive function of female rats is inhibited under long-term Al exposure in an Al dose-dependent manner.
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ABSTRACT: The direct effect of LH on estrogen secretion by rat granulosa cells was investigated. Ovarian granulosa cells from immature hypophysectomized diethylstilbestrol-treated rats were primed with FSH for 2 days in vitro to induce LH receptors. After the FSH priming, the granulosa cells were washed, and recultured for 4 additional days in media containing aromatase substrate (10(-7) M androstenedione) and purified FSH or LH. After the incubations, estrogen (E), progesterone (P) and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 alpha-OH-P) in the media were measured by RIA. When granulosa cells from hypophysectomized DES-treated rats were cultured for 6 days with FSH and androstenedione, the production of E, P and 20 alpha-OH-P was stimulated to a maximum of 100-, 200- and 270-fold, respectively, above that of control levels. In contrast, LH did not increase steroidogenesis in these cells. Following 2 days of FSH priming in vitro, however, the cultured granulosa cells exhibited marked increases (400-600%) in E, P and 20 alpha-OH-P production in response to LH treatment over a 4-day incubation period. This stimulatory effect of LH on estrogen and progestin production was dose-related; the minimum and maximum effective doses of LH for steroid production were 3 and 30 ng/ml, respectively, and the ED50 was calculated to be 6 ng/ml of LH. As with LH, FSH also stimulated steroidogenesis in a dose-related manner and the apparent ED50 of FSH on steroidogenesis was 45 ng/ml. To investigate whether LH can also stimulate aromatase activity in granulosa cells primed with FSH in vivo, immature hypophysectomized DES-treated rats were injected for 2 days with FSH after which the granulosa cells were isolated and cultured for 4 days in medium containing 10(-7) M androstenedione and LH or FSH. Both LH and FSH stimulated E, P and 20 alpha-OH-P production, and the maximum steroidogenic responses of LH and FSH were similar to those observed in cultured granulosa cells primed with FSH in vitro. THese results have demonstrated that LH is effective in stimulating both estrogen and progestin secretion in rat granulosa cells pretreated with FSH. This suggests an important role of LH in the direct control of both aromatization and luteinization in the granulosa cell.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 11/1981; 24(1):17-28. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to assess the potential combined influence of maternal restraint stress and aluminum (Al) exposure on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. Female rats were concurrently exposed to 0 (control group), 50 or 100 mg/kg/day of Al administered as Al nitrate nonahydrate in drinking water with citric acid (355 or 710 mg/kg/day) for a period of 15 days prior to mating with untreated males. Aluminum exposure was maintained throughout the gestational, lactational and post-weaning periods. On days 6-20 of gestation, one-half of the pregnant animals in each group were restrained for 2 h/day. Food consumption and maternal body weight were decreased in the groups exposed to restraint only or combined with the highest Al dose. All of the animals were allowed to deliver and wean their offspring. The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation. Moreover, open-field activity, passive avoidance, and spatial learning in a water maze were also determined on postnatal days 30, 35 and 60, respectively. Body weight of pups treated with 100 mg/kg/day of Al was decreased relative to controls from postnatal day 12 through 21, sexual maturation was delayed in Al treated females and in males exposed to 100 mg/kg/day. Forelimb grip strength was reduced in males exposed to 100 mg/Al/kg/day and in females exposed to this Al dose plus prenatal restraint. Learning in a passive avoidance task indicated facilitated performance for Al treated rats at 100 mg/kg/day combined with prenatal restraint as evidenced by longer avoidance latencies, while learning in a water maze task showed a shorter latency to find the platform on acquisition day 2 for Al treated rats. However, no effects of Al on water maze performance were detected during the retention probe trial in which the only effect noted was an increase in the platform quadrant swim time for the prenatal restraint group. In general terms, the results of the present study did not show a notable influence of maternal restraint on the Al-induced postnatal developmental and behavioral effects in the offspring of prenatally Al-exposed rats.Neurotoxicology and Teratology 01/2005; 27(4):565-74. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The influence of estrogens on gonadotropin-stimulated production of progesterone and 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (20 alpha-OH-P) was examined in primary cultures of rat granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were cultured for 3 days with increasing concentrations of FSH in the presence or absence of either diethylstilbestrol (DES) or estradiol. FSH treatment increased progestin production in a dose-dependent manner, whereas treatment with estrogens alone were ineffective. In contrast, concomitant addition of either DES or estradiol augmented FSH-stimulated production of progesterone and 20 alpha-OH-P. Increasing concentrations of estradiol (10(-10) - 10(-7) M) augmented the stimulatory effect of FSH (30 ng/ml) on progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner with ED50 values of approximately 3 X 10(-9) M. The facilitatory action of estradiol was time-related, becoming significant after 36 h of treatment. Granulosa cells were also cultured for 2 days with FSH to induce functional LH receptors. The FSH-primed cells were treated for an additional 3 days with increasing concentrations of LH (0.3-30 ng/ml) in the absence or presence of DES (10(-7) M). LH stimulated progesterone and 20 alpha-OH-P production in a dose-dependent manner, whereas concomitant addition of DES further enhanced LH-induced progestin biosynthesis. (Bu)2cAMP also increased progesterone and 20 alpha-OH-P production by the granulosa cells; however, concurrent addition of DES did not augment the actions of (Bu)2cAMP. The effect of estrogens on gonadotropin-stimulated cAMP accumulation was also examined. FSH treatment dose-dependently increased cAMP accumulation, whereas concomitant treatment with estradiol further increased the FSH action. Similarly, LH treatment also stimulated cAMP accumulation in FSH-primed cells, whereas concurrent addition of DES further augmented LH action. Thus, the stimulatory effect of estrogens upon gonadotropin-stimulated progestin production may be related to the augmentation of cAMP biosynthesis. The present observations suggest that intraovarian estrogens may act locally to enhance the sensitivity of granulosa cells to FSH and LH, thereby increasing the biosynthesis of progestins and cAMP by the granulosa cells.Endocrinology 07/1983; 112(6):1916-24. · 4.72 Impact Factor