Perforin Rapidly Induces Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Flip-Flop

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 09/2011; 6(9):e24286. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024286
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The cytotoxic cell granule secretory pathway is essential for host defense. This pathway is fundamentally a form of intracellular protein delivery where granule proteases (granzymes) from cytotoxic lymphocytes are thought to diffuse through barrel stave pores generated in the plasma membrane of the target cell by the pore forming protein perforin (PFN) and mediate apoptotic as well as additional biological effects. While recent electron microscopy and structural analyses indicate that recombinant PFN oligomerizes to form pores containing 20 monomers (20 nm) when applied to liposomal membranes, these pores are not observed by propidium iodide uptake in target cells. Instead, concentrations of human PFN that encourage granzyme-mediated apoptosis are associated with pore structures that unexpectedly favor phosphatidylserine flip-flop measured by Annexin-V and Lactadherin. Efforts that reduce PFN mediated Ca influx in targets did not reduce Annexin-V reactivity. Antigen specific mouse CD8 cells initiate a similar rapid flip-flop in target cells. A lipid that augments plasma membrane curvature as well as cholesterol depletion in target cells enhance flip-flop. Annexin-V staining highly correlated with apoptosis after Granzyme B (GzmB) treatment. We propose the structures that PFN oligomers form in the membrane bilayer may include arcs previously observed by electron microscopy and that these unusual structures represent an incomplete mixture of plasma membrane lipid and PFN oligomers that may act as a flexible gateway for GzmB to translocate across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of target cells.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perforin (PFN) is the key pore-forming molecule in the cytotoxic granules of immune killer cells. Expressed only in killer cells, PFN is the rate-limiting molecule for cytotoxic function, delivering the death-inducing granule serine proteases (granzymes) into target cells marked for immune elimination. In this chapter we describe our current understanding of how PFN accomplishes this task. We discuss where PFN is expressed and how its expression is regulated, the biogenesis and storage of PFN in killer cells and how they are protected from potential damage, how it is released, how it delivers Granzymes into target cells and the consequences of PFN deficiency.
    Sub-cellular biochemistry 01/2014; 80:197-220. DOI:10.1007/978-94-017-8881-6_10
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perforin-mediated cytotoxicity is an essential host defense, in which defects contribute to tumor development and pathogenic disorders including autoimmunity and autoinflammation. How perforin (PFN) facilitates intracellular delivery of pro-apoptotic and inflammatory granzymes across the bilayer of targets remains unresolved. Here we show that cellular susceptibility to granzyme B (GzmB) correlates with rapid PFN-induced phosphatidylserine externalization, suggesting that pores are formed at a protein-lipid interface by incomplete membrane oligomers (or arcs). Supporting a role for these oligomers in protease delivery, an anti-PFN antibody (pf-80) suppresses necrosis but increases phosphatidylserine flip-flop and GzmB-induced apoptosis. As shown by atomic force microscopy on planar bilayers and deep-etch electron microscopy on mammalian cells, pf-80 increases the proportion of arcs which correlates with the presence of smaller electrical conductances, while large cylindrical pores decline. PFN appears to form arc structures on target membranes that serve as minimally disrupting conduits for GzmB translocation. The role of these arcs in PFN-mediated pathology warrants evaluation where they may serve as novel therapeutic targets.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.110.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 08/2014; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.110 · 8.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pore-forming proteins (PFPs) interact with lipid bilayers to compromise membrane integrity. Many PFPs function by inserting a ring of oligomerized subunits into the bilayer to form a protein-lined hydrophilic channel. However, mounting evidence suggests that PFPs can also generate 'proteolipidic' pores by contributing to the fusion of inner and outer bilayer leaflets to form a toroidal structure. We discuss here toroidal pore formation by peptides including melittin, protegrin, and Alzheimer's A beta 1-41, as well as by PFPs from several evolutionarily unrelated families: the colicin/Bcl-2 grouping including the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, actinoporins derived from sea anemones, and the membrane attack complex-perforin/cholesterol dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) set of proteins. We also explore how the structure and biological role of toroidal pores might be investigated further.
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences 11/2014; 39(11). DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2014.09.002 · 13.52 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014